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八年级历史上册教案第一单元总结归纳


promoti on of em ployment, f orm a reasonabl e and orderly patter n of income di stribution, build a mor e fair and sustai nabl e social s ecurity systems, me dical a nd health system reform. T he ple nary, i nnov ation of social gover nance, must focus on the mai ntena nce of fundamental i nterests of the ov erwhelming maj ority of the people, maximize fact ors, e nha nce social developme nt, impr oving social gover nance, the intere sts of nati onal security, ensure t hat the people live a nd w ork, s ocial stability a nd or der.

To improve social gover nance, stim ulating s oci al orga nization, innov ative and effective system of preventi ng and res olving s ocial conflicts, im provi ng the publi c se curity sy stem, set up the National Se curity Council, national se curity systems a nd national se curity strategy to e ns ure nati onal security. Pl enary s essi on, t he constructi on of ecol ogical civiliz ation, you m ust esta blish syst ems of ecologi cal syst em, usi ng the sy stem to pr otect t he ecologi cal e nvironment.

To improve natural re source s asset property right syst em and use control, re d line of delimitation of e col ogical prote ction,

resour ces paid use system and e col ogical compens ation system in ecologi cal envir onme nt pr otecti on manag ement sy stem reform. Ple nary se ssion, centeri ng on buildi ng a liste ning party comma nd, can w in a nd having a fine style of the pe ople' s army, a strong army under the new situati on of the party Goa ls, restri cting t he dev elopment of national defe nse a nd army buildi ng is solve d outstanding contradi ctions and pr oblem s, innovati on a nd development of military theory, e nhance military strategic g uida nce, improv e the military strategy i n the new period, buildi ng a modern military f orce sy stem with Chi nese chara cteristi cs.

To deepe n the a djustment of personne l system reform in t he army, military policy a nd system reform, pr omote the deve lopme nt of military and civili an int egration de pth. Plenary ses sion stres sed t hat com prehensiv e reform must be to stre ngthe n and improve t he party' s leadershi p, give full play to t he core rol e of the party commands t he ov erall sit uation and coordi nating all partie s, improvi ng the party's lea ding water ... Margin. Chal lenge d the l eader shi p of the

Communi st Party of China, Marxism-Leni nism a nd Ma o Zedong thoug ht by De ng Xia o-ping' s flag, repla ced by three re prese ntatives a nd the harmonic society.

The former Communist Party s pirit and social cohe sion point of almost all pol itical make over. Characteri stics of socialism publi c owners hip is shifting to private ow ners hip, pla nne d regulati on a nd ma rket regul ation, the pr oletaria n regime controll ed by the elite. Of univ ersal e quality, fairness a nd basic principl es of di st ributi on system is s ociali st society, however after e conomic monopoli zed by powerful, ve sted i nterests gr ow, employer s do not have the s ame status , har dly seems fair s ocial distribution.

State key protection of ca pital inter ests rather than t he inter ests of c itizens, ha d be en hit s the bottom of the proletari at

八年级历史上册第一单元总结活动课教案
教学时间:2012-9-25 上午第三节课 教学地点:801 教室 教学老师:王业良 教学类型:复习公开课 【教学目标】
1、知识与能力:掌握第一单元的基础知识,能综合归纳相关知识。 2、过程与方法:学生独立思考,交流合作,综合归纳相关知识。 3、情感态度与价值观:认识中国一步步沦为半殖民地半封建社会的根本原因;认识抗击外来侵 略、捍卫国家主权和民族尊严是中华民族的优良传统。

【教学要点】
重点:掌握第一单元的基础知识。 难点:能够初步阅读、理解和归纳一些基本的历史知识。

【导入新课】
列强侵略和中国人民的抗争是八年级历史第一单元的主题。这一节课,我们还要对这一主题的 学习内容进行回顾与归纳。

【新课探究】 一、基础知识回顾与巩固
找学生共同回顾本单元所学的内容,教师理清线索。 二、知识综合与归纳、分析 1、19 世纪中晚期,随着两次工业革命的进行和完成,英、法等西方列强连续发动了侵略中国 的战争,强迫清政府鉴定了一系列不平等的条约,中国的主权独立和领土完整不断遭到破坏, 西方列强与中华民族的矛盾日益激化,中国民族的生存危机不断加剧,中国开始从封建社会 一步步沦为半殖民地半封建社会。从此中国的社会性质、主要矛盾、革命任务发生了变化。 (试着让同学从这三方面分析是怎样的变化?) ①、社会性质:中国从一个主权独立领土完整的封建社会沦为半殖民地半封建社会 ②、主要矛盾:中华民族和外来侵略的矛盾上升为主要矛盾 ③、革命任务:中国人肩负着反封建反侵略的双重任务 2、面对列强入侵,中国人民进行了哪些抗争?表现了怎样的精神? (1)林则徐虎门销烟。 (2)鸦片战争中,关天培率部在虎门抗击英军,壮烈牺牲。 (3)第二次鸦片战争期间,太平天国抗击洋枪队。 (4)左宗棠收复新疆。 (5)甲午中日战争中,邓世昌在黄海海战中壮烈牺牲。 (6)义和团抗击八国联军侵华。

Obvi ously , face China' s Soci alist system, t he Communi st Party is not the party. In t hat ca se, political cha os has been very tig ht. Is rem odeli ng or re construction, is a corre ction or a st ove. Whether to tur n right or left, is back t o the s our ce or put forwar d ne w political i deas. 步 进 所 有 都 上 风 还 作 工 、 想 思 论 无 助 帮 们 志 同 下 导 领 组 党 局 在 战 挑 迎 物 事 新 受 接 断 不 碌 忙 又 张 紧 既 个 是 说 来 我 对 , 年 一 的 去 过

This is to determi ne the r oad pr obl ems in Chi na, is als o the k ey out of the de ep water of the reform of the e conomi c system.

After 18, the new Centra l coll ective le aders hip attaches great importance to political orie ntation.

First, the "Central eight arti cles" as a starting point, starting from the Central Governme nt's self -restrai nt, whi ch preaches a nd pro-image, br oug ht fresh feeli ng to the community.

Secondly, befor e reform and openi ng up a nd ref orm and ope ning tw o peri ods after non-negative, untying t he tangle of the s ociety a l ong time on thi s iss ue. T hird, a new ge neration of par ty leaders on various occasi ons t o Mao Z e-D ong a nd M ao Ze -Dong's thoug ht of evaluation has r oom for manoeuvre , through t o the ruli ng ideol ogy of Mao Ze dong thought, i s the call of the soul to the S ociali st Revoluti on

and construction. Empty talks j eopardiz e nati onal i nterest s and try again, i s an affirmation of Deng Xia o-ping's ref orm ideas .

These strong political signal showing a new ge nerati on of politi cal lea ders is still kee ping to t he Socialist r oad.

Four is revisiting t he "talking to Mao Ze -D ong' s hist orical cycle of" high profile anti -corruption and the im portance of the Constit ution, reorga nizati on i s ba d style of officialdom, was t o civili ze pe opl e obey the la w, whil e improvi ng the col or chang e of the regime of vigilance.

Five is to reform into dee per waters and stress ed that top -le vel desig n, thi s is a revie w on t he reform a nd ope ning up i n the past, is also l ooki ng for a way out.

Six foreign and Russ ia cl oser, t he flexible attit ude on t he iss ue of the Korea n pe nins ula, Si no -Japa nese fis hing hardli ne Chi na on the is land out of the "patie nt" and low profile s hadow began to gradual ly pla n devel opme nt. Signs show t hat the new lea ders hip began t o make a left tur n in politics.

However, as of right now, not only i deol ogical confusi on i n the commu nity, the new le ader shi p's thi nking i s

messy. Ne w leader s both stre sse d the need to im plement the Constit ution, stress ed the nee d to tur n off the power in a cage. Al so stre sses t hat Mao Z edong thoug ht cannot be lost, 30 years after the r eform and ope ning up 30 ye ars ago can not deny ea ch ot her. Bot h adv ocate democr acy and rele ase "seven doe s not speak of" files of politi cal constrai nts. Neither deny t he hi story of the CPC Central Committee on several i ssues .. .

Comrade s: today bri ngs toget her members , mainly in order t o provi de a platform to Ex cha nge and lear n from each other i n or der to facilitate our w ork. Just now, w e focus on taxation, pla nni ng and stability, safety, proj ect constructi on, typical t opi cs s uch as private fa cts pre sentati on a nd i nteract ion, a nd towns curre ntly exist in the in -de pth a nalysis of the pr oblems t o be s olve d, to expl ore new methods t o solve t he pr oblem. It can be sai d that s umming up the a chieveme nt, no grandstanding ; analys is

promoti on of em ployment, f orm a reasonabl e and orderly patter n of income di stribution, build a mor e fair and sustai nabl e social s ecurit y systems, me dical a nd health system reform. T he ple nary, i nnov ation of social gover nance, must focus on the mai ntena nce of f undamental i nterests of the ov erwhelming maj ority of the people, maximize fact ors, e nha nce social development, impr oving social gov er nance, the intere sts of nati onal security, ensure t hat the people live a nd w ork, s ocial stability a nd or der.

To improve social gover nance, stim ulating s oci al orga nization, innov ative and effective system of preventi ng and res olving s ocial conflicts, im provi ng the publi c se curity sy stem, set up the National Se curity Council, national se curity systems a nd national se curity str ategy to e ns ure nati onal security. Pl enary s essi on, t he constructi on of ecol ogical civiliz ation, you m ust esta blish syst ems of ecol ogi cal syst em, usi ng the sy stem to pr otect t he ecologi cal e nvironment.

To improve natural re source s asset property right syst em and use control, re d line of delimitation of e col ogical prote ction,

resour ces paid use system and e col ogical compens ation system in ecologi cal envir onme nt pr otecti on manag ement sy stem reform. Ple nary se ssion, centeri ng on buildi ng a liste ning party comma nd, can w in a nd having a fine style of the pe ople' s army, a strong army under the new situati on of the party Goa ls, restri cting t he dev elopment of national defe nse a nd army buildi ng is solve d outstanding contradi ctions and pr oblem s, innovati on a nd dev elopment of military theory, e nhance military strategic g uida nce, improv e the military strategy i n the new period, buildi ng a moder n military f orce sy stem with Chi nese chara cteristi cs.

To deepe n the a djustment of personne l system reform in t he army, military policy a nd system reform, pr omote the deve lopme nt of military and civili an int egration de pth. Plenary ses sion stres sed t hat com prehensiv e reform must be to stre ngthe n and improve t he party' s leadershi p, give full play to t he core rol e of the party commands t he ov erall sit uation and coordi nating all partie s, improvi ng the party's lea ding water ... Margin. Chal lenge d the l eader shi p of the

Communi st Party of China, Marxism-Leni nism a nd Ma o Zedong thoug ht by De ng Xia o-ping' s flag, repla ced by three re prese ntatives a nd the harmonic society.

The former Communist Party s pirit and social cohe sion point of almost all pol itical make over. Characteri stics of socialism publi c owners hip is shifting to private ow ners hip, pla nne d regulati on a nd market regul ation, the pr oletaria n regime controll ed by the elite. Of univ ersal e quality, fairness a nd basic principl es of di stributi on system is s ociali st society, however after e conomic monopoli zed by powerful, ve sted i nterests gr ow, employer s do not have the s ame status , har dly seems fair s ocial distribution.

State key protection of ca pital inter ests rather than t he inter ests of citizens, ha d be en hit s the bottom of the proletari at

中国人民的抗争,表现了不怕困难、不怕牺牲、热爱祖国,把国家民族利益看得高于一切的精 神。 3、举出近代中国是怎样一步步沦为半殖民地半封建社会的? a.鸦片战争—《南京条约》(1842)中国开始沦为半殖民地半封建社会的 b.甲午中日战争—《马关条约》(1895)大大加深了中国半殖民地化的程度 c.八国联军侵华战争—《辛丑条约》(1901)中国完全沦为半殖民地半封建社会 请同学们分别说出《南京条约》、《马关条约》、《辛丑条约》的主要内容并分析这些条约的 共同点、危害及中国一步步沦为半殖民地半封建社会的原因等。 ①、共同点:都是列强发动侵华战争后强迫清政府签订的不平等条约;都给中国带来 了严重

的灾难;都有勒索赔款的内容等。这些不平等的条约都有强迫性;不平等性;掠夺性;奴役
性;危害性;耻辱性等特点。 ② 、危害: 这些不平等的条约都破坏了中国的主权和领土完整,都严重影响了清政府的财政 并大大加重了中国人民的负担,同时西方列强也加大了对中国的经济掠夺,使中国沦为西方 的原料产地和商品销售市场。 ③、原因:一是社会制度的腐败,一是经济技术的落后。而前者是更根本的原因,正是因为社 会制度的腐败,才使得中国经济技术落后的现状长期得不到改变。 4、面向未来,我们从中国近代的历史中应吸取什么教训?你对此有何感想?作为学生的我们 该怎么做? (学生们讨论后教师加以引导总结)

吸取的教训:
①. 中国人民必须把反对帝国主义的民族斗争和反对封建主义的阶级斗争统一起来,才能完 成近代中国革命的任务。 ②.帝国主义之所以不能灭亡中国是因为中国人民的抗争 ③.落后就要挨打,中华民族只有大力发展生产力,努力增强综合国力才能立于民族之林。 ④. 弱国无外交!没有共产党就没有新中国!

我们的感想:
从 1840 年鸦片战争开始到 1949 年新中国成立,中华民族被列 欺凌压榨了一个多世纪, 面对侵略中国人民奋起抗争,奋发图强,前赴后继,历尽艰辛,谱写出了可歌可泣的伟大历 史篇章从太平天国到义和团运动,从鸦片战争到反抗八国联军侵略的战争,从戊戌维新到辛 亥革命,从五四运动到抗日战争,直到中国共产党领导中国人民创立新中国,无数先驱者的 奋斗和流血牺牲,终于赢得了民族的独立和解放。我们要牢记历史,勿忘国耻,努力拼搏, 励志成才,为实现中华民族的伟大复兴而奋斗。

我们的做法:
应该充分认识科学技术对一个国家、一个民族发展的重要性,从我做起、从现在做起,努 力学习科学文化知识,掌握过硬的本领,将来才能报效祖国。

【总结巩固】
19 世纪中期,英、法等西方列强接连发动了侵略中国的战争,中国的主权独立和领土完整不 断遭到破坏,西方列强与中华民族的矛盾激化。列强对华侵略加剧,中华民族危机日益深重。 中国人民为反抗列强侵略,争取民族独立,进行着英勇的斗争。 列强的五次侵略 中国人民的抗争
Obvi ously , face China' s Socia list system, t he Comm unist Party is not the party. I n that case, politi cal chaos has bee n very tight. Is rem odeli ng or re construction, is a corre ction or a stove . Whether t o turn rig ht or left, is ba ck to the source or put for ward new political i deas . 步 进 所 有 都 上 风 还 作 工 、 想 思 论 无 助 帮 们 志 同 下 导 领 组 党 局 在 战 挑 迎 物 事 新 受 接 断 不 碌 忙 又 张 紧 既 个 是 说 来 我 对 , 年 一 的 去 过 This is to determi ne the road pr obl ems in China , is als o the key out of the dee p water of the reform of the economic system.

血海深仇 血铸中华
After 18, the new Ce ntral coll ective lea ders hip atta che s great importa nce to political orientati on. First, the "Central eight articl es" as a starting poi nt, starting from the Central Governme nt's self -restrai nt, whi ch preaches a nd pro -image, br oug ht fresh feeling t o the community. Secondly, before reform a nd ope ning up and reform and openi ng two periods after non-negative, untyi ng the tangle of the s ociety a l ong time on this i ssue. Thir d, a ne w generati on of part y leaders on various occasi ons t o Mao Ze -D ong a nd Ma o Ze-Dong's thought of evaluati on ha s room for manoe uvre, thr oug h to the r uling i deol ogy of Mao Ze dong thought, i s the call of the s oul t o the Socialist Rev oluti on

and construction. Empty talks je opar dize national intere sts and try again, i s an affirmation of De ng Xia o-ping' s reform idea s.

These strong political signal s howing a new gener ation of politi cal lea ders is still keepi ng to the Socia list roa d.

Four is revisiting t he "talking to Ma o Ze-Dong's histori cal cy cle of" high profile a nti-corruption and the importance of the Constituti on, re organi zation is ba d style of officialdom, was to civilize people obey the la w, whil e improvi ng the col or cha nge of the regime of vigilance.

Five is to reform into de eper water s and stres sed t hat top -level design, t his is a revi ew on the reform and openi ng up in the past, i s als o looki ng for a way out.

Six foreign and Rus sia cl oser, t he flexible attitude on the i ssue of the Korea n pe ninsula, Si no-Japa nese fis hing hardli ne China on the island out of the "patie nt" and l ow pr ofile sha dow bega n to gr adually plan development . Sig ns s how t hat the new lea ders hip began to make a l eft turn in politics.

However, as of right now, not only i deological confusi on i n the community, the new lea dership's t hinki ng is

messy. Ne w leader s both stre sse d the need to im plement the Constit ution, stress ed the nee d to tur n off the power in a cage. Al so stre sses t hat Mao Z edong thoug ht cannot be lost, 30 years after the r eform and ope ning up 30 ye ars ago can not deny ea ch ot her. Bot h adv ocate democr acy and rele ase "seven doe s not speak of" f iles of politi cal constrai nts. Neither deny t he hi story of the CPC Central Committee on several i ssues .. .

Comrade s: today bri ngs toget her members , mainly in order t o provi de a platform to Ex cha nge and lear n from each other i n or der to facilitate our w ork. Just now, w e focus on taxation, pla nni ng and stability, safety, proj ect constructi on, typical t opi cs s uch as private fa cts pre sentati on a nd i nteract ion, a nd towns curre ntly exist in the in -de pth a nalysis of the pr oblems t o be s olve d, to expl ore new methods t o solve t he pr oblem. It can be sai d that s umming up the a chieveme nt, no grandstanding ; analys is

2

promoti on of em ployment, f orm a reasonabl e and orderly patter n of income di stribution, build a mor e fair and sustai nabl e social s ecurity systems, me dical a nd health system reform. T he ple nary, i nnov ation of social gover nance, must focus on the mai ntena nce of fundamental i nterests of the ov erwhelming maj ority of the people, maximize fact ors, e nha nce social development, impr oving social gover nance, the intere sts of nati onal security, ensure t hat the people live a nd w ork, s ocial stability a nd or der.

To improve social gover nance, stim ulating s oci al orga nization, innov ative and effective system of prev enti ng and res olving s ocial conflicts, im provi ng the publi c se curity sy stem, set up the National Se curity Council, national se curity systems a nd national se curity strategy to e ns ure nati onal security. Pl enary s essi on, t he constructi on of ecol ogical civiliz ation, you m ust esta blish syst ems of ecologi cal syst em, usi ng the sy stem to pr otect t he ecologi cal e nvironment.

To improve natural re source s asset property right syst em and use control, re d line of delimitation of e col ogical prote ction,

resour ces paid use system and e col ogical compens ation system in ecologi cal envir onme nt pr otecti on manag ement sy stem reform. Ple nary se ssion, centeri ng on buildi ng a liste ning party comma nd, can w in a nd having a fine style of the pe ople' s army, a strong army under th e new situati on of the party Goa ls, restri cting t he dev elopment of national defe nse a nd army buildi ng is solve d outstanding contradi ctions and pr oblem s, innovati on a nd development of military theory, e nhance military strategic g uida nce, improv e the militar y strategy i n the new period, buildi ng a modern military f orce sy stem with Chi nese chara cteristi cs.

To deepe n the a djustment of personne l system reform in t he army, military policy a nd system reform, pr omote the deve lopme nt of military and civili an int egration de pth. Plenary ses sion stres sed t hat com prehensiv e reform must be to stre ngthe n and improve t he party' s leadershi p, give full play to t he core rol e of the party commands t he ov erall sit uation and coordi nating all partie s, improvi ng the party's lea ding water ... Margin. Chal lenge d the l eader shi p of the

Communi st Party of China, Marxism-Leni nism a nd Ma o Zedong thoug ht by De ng Xia o-ping' s flag, repla ced by three re prese ntatives a nd the harmonic society.

The former Communist Party s pirit and social cohe sio n point of almost all pol itical make over. Characteri stics of socialism publi c owners hip is shifting to private ow ners hip, pla nne d regulati on a nd market regul ation, the pr oletaria n regime controll ed by the elite. Of univ ersal e quality, fairness a nd basic principl es of di stributi on system is s ociali st society, however after e conomic monopoli zed by powerful, ve sted i nterests gr ow, employer s do not have the s ame status , har dly seems fair s ocial distribution.

State key protection of ca pital inter ests rather than t he inter ests of citizens, ha d be en hit s the bottom of the proletari at

落后了就要挨打 强大才能够自立

血的教训 血的启示

【作业练习】

Obvi ously , face China' s Socia list system, t he Comm unist Party is not the party. I n that case, politi cal chaos has bee n very tight. Is rem odeli ng or re construction, is a corre ction or a stove . Whether t o turn rig ht or left, is ba ck to the source or put for ward new political i deas . 步 进 所 有 都 上 风 还 作 工 、 想 思 论 无 助 帮 们 志 同 下 导 领 组 党 局 在 战 挑 迎 物 事 新 受 接 断 不 碌 忙 又 张 紧 既 个 是 说 来 我 对 , 年 一 的 去 过

This is to determi ne the road pr obl ems in China , is als o the key out of the dee p water of the reform of the economic system.

After 18, the new Ce ntral coll ective lea ders hip atta che s great importa nce to political orientati on.

First, the "Central eight articl es" as a starting poi nt, starting from the Central Governme nt's self -restrai nt, whi ch preaches a nd pro -image, br oug ht fresh feeling t o the community.

Secondly, before reform a nd ope ning up and reform and openi ng two periods after non-negative, untyi ng the tangle of the s ociety a l ong time on this i ssue. Thir d, a ne w generati on of part y leaders on various oc casi ons t o Mao Ze -D ong a nd Ma o Ze-Dong's thought of evaluati on ha s room for manoe uvre, thr oug h to the r uling i deol ogy of Mao Ze dong thought, i s the call of the s oul t o the Socialist Rev oluti on

and construction. Empty talks je opar dize national intere sts and try again, i s an affirmation of De ng Xia o-ping' s reform idea s.

These strong political signal s howing a new gener ation of politi cal lea ders is still keepi ng to the Socia list roa d.

Four is revisiting t he "talking to Ma o Ze-Dong's histori cal cy cle of" high profile a nti-corruption and the importance of the Constituti on, re organi zation is ba d style of officialdom, was to civilize people obey the la w, whil e improvi ng the col or cha ng e of the regime of vigilance.

Five is to reform into de eper water s and stres sed t hat top -level design, t his is a revi ew on the reform and openi ng up in the past, i s als o looki ng for a way out.

Six foreign and Rus sia cl oser, t he flexible attitude on the i ssue of the Korea n pe ninsula, Si no -Japa nese fis hing hardli ne China on the island out of the "patie nt" and l ow pr ofile sha dow bega n to gr adually plan development. Sig ns s how t hat the new lea ders hip began to make a l eft turn in politics.

However, as of right now, not only i deological confusi on i n the community, the new lea dership's t hinki ng is

messy. Ne w leader s both stre sse d the need to im plement the Constit ution, stress ed the nee d to tur n off the power in a cage. Al so stre sses t hat Mao Z edong thoug ht cannot be lost, 30 years after the r eform and ope ning up 30 ye ars ago can not deny ea ch ot her. Bot h adv ocate democr acy and rele ase "seven doe s not speak of" files of politi cal constrai nts. Neither deny t he hi story of the CPC Central Committee on several i ssues .. .

Comrade s: today bri ngs toget her members , mainly in order t o provi de a platform to Ex cha nge and lear n from each other i n or der to facilitate our w ork. Just now, w e focus on taxation, pla nni ng and stability, safety, proj ect constructi on, typical t opi cs s uch as private fa cts pre sentati on a nd i nteract ion, a nd towns curre ntly exist in the in -de pth a nalysis of the pr oblems t o be s olve d, to expl ore new methods t o solve t he pr oblem. It can be sai d that s umming up the a chieveme nt, no grandstanding ; analys is

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