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高中英语句子成分讲解及配套练习


学习好资料 欢迎下载 句子成分(members of sentences) (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当 主语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、 代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如: During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式) (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放在 主语之后。谓语的构成如下: 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语:(1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。 如:You may keep the book for two weeks. (2)由系动词加表语构成。如:We are students. (四)表语:表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动 名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。例如: Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) Three times seven is twenty one.(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby is playing football.(动名词) The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) Time is up. The class is over.(副词) The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: They went to see an exhibition yesterday.(名词) The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time.(代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 宾语种类: (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例如:Lend me your dictionary, please. (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如:They elected him their monitor. 学习好资料 欢迎下载 (六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补 足语,才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等+ 宾语+宾补)。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如: His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) (七)定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) His rap


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