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高中英语语法基础之句子成分讲解_图文


句子成分讲解 1.分析句子成分 思考:每个部分在句中充当什么成分? I met my best friend Tom at the station yesterday. 2.句子有哪些成分? 主语 句子成分 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语 表语 定语 状语 同位语 2.1 主语 定义:主语是谓语所表示的动作的发出者。 主语一般位于句子开头,且不能省略。 eg. I am a Chinese student. John is my best friend. 2.1 主语 注意: 1. 在倒装句、疑问句、感叹句中,句子主语可放在谓 语之后 eg. Do you like it? 2. 在祈使句中,主语you常常省略。 eg. Don’t move. 2.1 主语 作主语的成分 a) Jane is good at playing the piano. b) She went out in a hurry. c) Four plus four is eight. d) To see is to believe. e) Smoking is bad for health. f) The young should respect the old. g) What he has said is true. 名词 代词 数词 动词不定式 动名词 the+形容词 从句 2.1 主语 练习:找出下列句中的主语 a) That she was chosen made a great stir (轰动) in her school. b) It was a pity that you shouldn’t go to see the film. c) What he wants to tell us is not clear. 2.2 谓语 定义:主语的动作或主语所具有的特征和状态, 一般在主语之后。 2.2 谓语 I can swim. She has finished the homework 分类 简单谓语:由一个动词或I d动on词’短t l语ike构a成pples. He likes reading. 复合谓语: 情态动词或其他助动词+动词原形 基本助动词be、do、have 由系动词加表语构成 I am a student. I am beautiful. 2.2 谓语 练习:找出下列句中的谓语 a) We come. b) The sun rose. c) I have finished my homework so I can play now. d) Knowing his disadvantages,I can defeat him easily. e) Tired and hungry,we arrived home with nothing to eat . 2.3 宾语 定义:谓语动词的对象或承受者。 一般位于及物动词或者介词后。 2.3 宾语 作宾语的成分 a) I like my job. 名词 b) I love you. 代词(宾格) c) He wanted to leave here. 动词不定式 d) They enjoyed playing computer games. 动名词 e) He asked where he was. 从句 f) The new medicine makes it possible to treat this terrible disease. it作形式宾语 2.3 宾语 单宾语:一个宾语 1. I like English. 2. I am writing a letter. 宾语的 双宾语:间接宾语+直接宾语 分类 1. He gave me(间宾) a letter(直宾). 2. I will email you(间宾) my training plan(直宾 )复合宾语:(宾语+宾补) 1. Tom made the girl(宾语) cry(宾补). 2. We consider him(宾语) a good teacher(宾补 2.3 宾语 找出下列句中的宾语 1.He enjoys reading. 2.What he said does not matter. 3.He said “Good morning.” 4.I show间ed宾him my pictures. 直宾 5.He admits that he was mistaken. 宾语从句 2.3 宾语 单宾语:一个宾语 宾语的 分类 双宾语:间接宾语+直接宾语 复合宾语:(宾语+宾补) 2.4 宾语补足语 定义:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。 在英语中有些及物动词,接了宾语意义仍不完整还需要有 一个其他的句子成分,来补充说明宾语的意义、状态等,简称 宾补。 2.4 宾语补足语 作宾语补足语的成分 a) I found the book interesting. b) Do you hear Tom singing? c) He made himself understood. d) She asked me to lend her a hand. e) Please make yourself at home. f) Please keep the dog out. g) We must keep it a secret. 形容词 现在分词 过去分词 动词不定式 介词短语 副词 名词 2.4 宾语补足语 练习:找出下列句中的宾语补足语 The war made him a soldier. New methods make the job easy. I often find him at work. The teacher ask the s


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