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新课程理念下小学数学教师行为的转变

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holi day, pensi on a nd health, cult ural and creative experience, s ports health, farming, rural be d and breakfasts i n new formats. T hree is t he brand to cre ate articles . XX agricultural comparativ e adva ntage into full play, e spe cially the excl usive a dvantages of climate, mountains a nd sea res ource s, to create a group of the city, t he pr ovince's "calle d" XX seafood, s nack foods a nd safe agricult ural products bra nd characteri stics . Meanwhil e, new i nd ustry gui dance, s upport more farmers to participate i n entre prene urs hip, promoti ng large-s cale pr oje cts such a s be d and breakfasts, farm, see d breedi ng base construction. Four i s the mechanism innovation of the article. Dee pe n agricultural reform, focusing on s upporti ng foster profes sional major, family farms, cooperatives, enter prise s and other new s ubj ects of agricultural ma nag ement, impr ove agricultural pr oducti on a nd operation of large-scale, professi onal leve l. Advance the reform of property right system in rural areas , to pay s peci al attention to land rights, improve t he function of property rights tradi ng center to gui de la nd management to professi onal users , family farms, cooperatives, lea ding e nterprise s in circulation. Spare no effort to pr omote the province's "Trinity" farmer cooperative e conomy organi zation system reform of County building, and actively ex plore the Tri nity of production, s upply and marketing, cre ditFarmer cooperative e conomy organi zation system, real orga nic aggregates up to al l k inds of business e ntities, clos ely linke d to the all a spe cts of pr oducti on a nd marketing. ( B) to make the country side m ore bea utiful. Promoting the construction of new t owns and new countrysi de rea ctions together, stre ngthe ning the construction of rural e co-envir onment, create the bea utiful country side construction upgra des, maki ng rural areas more l ivable, suita ble for industr y, and travel. A focus on rural e nvironme nt impr ovement. As far as the rural, the most ba sic i s to make the e nvironme nt clea n and or derly. Poll ution to extensively mobilize t he mas ses conti nue to carry water, clear rivers, down vi olations, treatment of blea chi ng, s uch as wa ste reduction, flow ering tree "big six", vigorously carry out waste reducti on, re source re cover y, impr ove the clea ning me cha nism, e nha nce t he level of meticul ous manageme nt of the v il lage. Second, we must pay s pecial attention to t he be auti ful re side ntial building. A dher e to the "planning a hea d, be cause village system, combi nation clas sification impleme ntation, dem olition, alteration simulta ne ously" poli cy, vig orously impleme nt the "five hundred" be autiful countrysi de construction, a ctively pr omote "bea utiful house" pil ot expa nsion. Ar ound 10 4 nati onal r oad, Ling Road, l ongji nda dao, sea roa d, Ju XI Liao road t o cat ch the five side s of the main roa ds i n about 200 village s, beautiful countrysi de features boutique village created, g ood job on p lanning, environmental protecti on, cult ural heritage , industrial devel opme nt, crafting li nes to create the bea utiful rural sce ner y, bouti que village breed chara cteristics. No matter which

新课程理念下教师行为的转变
实验小学 宋蘅 1999 年全国教育工作会议后,国家在深入分析当前关于基础教育问题讨论中的各种意 见和建议的基础上对基础教育各科课程进行改革,并研制了中小学各学科的“课程标准” , 以逐步取代原来的 “教学大纲” 。 根据 “课程标准” , 我国基础教育的课程发生了很大的变动。 在新课程理念的背景下,在实践新课程中,小学数学教师的行为应相应地发生转变。新课程 中教师行为的变化,已经不取决于个人的选择,而是一种教育情境的规定,一种课程发展的 趋势。 一、转变教师行为,建立和谐的师生关系 在新课程中,传统意义上的教师教和学生学,将不断让位于师生互教互学,彼此形成一 个真正的“学习共同体” ,教学过程不只是忠实地执行课程计划(方案)的过程,而且是师生 共同开发课程、丰富课程的过程,课程变成一种动态的、发展的,教学真正成为师生富有个 性化的创造过程。 1、由教学权威意识向教学平等参与者意识转变 转变教师角色意识是找准角色定位的前提。 传统社会中, 由于人们获取知识的途径很少, 教师是知识的重要的占有者和传授者, 因此, 教师对学生有绝对的知识权威。 教师始终以 “施 教”者的面孔对待学生,致使师生关系不平等,甚至造成对立情绪。 现代学生发展观认为, 教育的目的在于促进学生的发展, 学生的发展主要靠自身的努力, 同时与教师的唤醒、指导、帮助分不开的,教师是学生发展的主动参与者而不是局外人。作 为主动参与者,教师和学生在人格上是平等的,师生关系是和谐的。只有在这种情况下,学 生才能在认知和发展过程中得到全面和谐的发展。 2、由教师教学生学向师生交往、积极互动、共同发展转变 教学是教师教与学生学的统一, 这种统一的实质是交往。 新课程把教学过程看成是师生 交往、积极互动、共同发展的过程。没有交往、互动,就不存在或未发生实质性的教学,把 教学的本质定位为交往,是对教学过程的正本清源。新课程强调,教学是教师与学生的交往 互动,师生双方相互交流、相互沟通、相互启发、相互理解、相互补充。在这个过程中,教 师与学生分享彼此的思考、经验和知识,交流彼此的情感、体验与观念,丰富教学内容,求 得新的发现,从而达到共识、共享、共进,实现教学相长和共同发展。交往昭示着师生的互 教互学,彼此将形成一个真正的“学习共同体” 。在这个共同体中,对教学而言,意味着人 人参与,意味着平等对话,意味着它不仅是一种认识活动过程,更是一种人与人之间的平等 对话与精神交流。对学生而言, 意味着心态开放,主体性凸现, 个性的张显,创造性的解放。 对教师而言,交往意味着教师角色定位的转换,教师由教学中的主角转向“平等中首席” , 从传统的知识传授者向现代学生发展的促进者的转变。 【案例一】 质数、合数的教学片断 师出示:写出下面每个数的所有的约数,并分类. 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12 师: 试试看你能解决这个问题吗?根据观察你可以得到哪些结论?你还想知道些什么? 生:自然数按约数个数可分三类,1;有 2 个约数;3 个约数以上。 师:在数学中我们把只有 2 个约数的数叫做质数(或素数) ,把有 2 个以上约数的数叫 合数。 生:老师,那么 1 既不是质数也不是合数对吗? 师:同学们这句话对吗?为什么?

as long a s they caug ht up pea ch Lake a nd vill age after eight acre s to create a sta ndard, even if the County fi nancial to be nervous, the County Governme nt will fulfil their commitments, a nd 3 million Yua n/vi llage of s ubsi dies . Thir d, we m ust pay s pe cial attentio n to devel opment of bea uty industr y. 任 负 人 室 科 管 分 对 还 务 业 线 条 抓 既 员 子 班 组 小 导 领 作 工 设 建 政 廉 风 党 统 系 了 立 成 , 求 要 ”的 责 双 岗 “一 照 按

Construction and traditi onal vill ages a nd beautiful countrysi de protecti on of history a nd cult ure village , rural tourism, bed a nd breakfast in combi ning economi c, on rural t ouri sm devel opment i n pre cis e and accurate positi oni ng, preci sion marketing, s upply, and vigorously promote t he beautiful r ural lands cape of rural tourism complex, li ne, fa s hion boutique farm village construction and strive to buil d a group of XX feature quality bouti que accommodation proj ect. (C) efforts to get farmers to become eve n richer. "Off not well -off, the key to fellow", t he "three agri cult ure", final destinati on was impr oving farmers ' welfare, impr oving farmers ' livi ng standards . Focus on t hree as pect s: one i s

"increasi ng income-ge nerating" efforts. Actively developing t he characteri stic agriculture , proces sing, e -commerce, farm and be d and breakfast in e conomy, ens ure a stabl e operating income growth. Deepen the "three rights" rights em poweri ng the reform, promoti ng the pr operty i ncome growth. Strengtheni ng of farmers ' skills trai ning, i ncrea se empl oyment levels , prom oting s ustaine d growt h in wage i ncome. G uide e nterpri ses to stre ngthe n social res ponsi bilit y, equality and mutual be nefit, and signe d a contract of purchase a nd sale of agricultural product s for farmers, cooperatives a nd farmers are encouraged "guara nteed ear nings + share" distribution system, s haring the value -added benefits of industrial development. Se cond in t he growi ng collective efforts. City ha s devel ope d the impl ementation of village -level colle ctive economy three years cultivating meter, Re quires t hre e years of hard w ork and largely kongke cun, the maj ority of villages have operating income . Against thi s target, we have to be base d on local conditions, use your hea d, a nd a ctively explor e and find ways , and ensure completi on of tasks in t he cit y. Thir d, w ork on strengthe ned safeguards. Adva nci ng pre cisi on of poverty, improve the low -income house hol d tracking , dynamic manageme nt mechanism, e specially for "unemploye d ca n hold, una ble to get out of poverty" of pov erty, further strengtheni ng the fallba ck of s ubsi stence allowances a nd s oci al assi stanc e, and address t he ba sic needs of poor people. D eepe ning t he reform of publi c servi ces i n rural areas, focus on resolvi ng pr omine nt weakne ss of rural publi c servi ce a nd people's livel ihood facilities, such as t hrough the teaching, me dical a nd other ways t o improve e ducational level s, improvi ng healt h conditions in r ural areas. By encouraging the Ce ntral village to s et up day care centres t o pr omote ol d-age home, r ural elderly pe nsi on probl ems. Thir d, firmly grasp a nd conti nue d to play w ell "five water treatment of" winni ng the war on Fe bruary 2 9 this year, the provi nce' s "five water treatment

holi day, pensi on a nd health, cult ural and creative experience, s ports health, farming, rural be d and breakfasts i n new formats. T hree is t he brand to cre ate articles . XX agricultural comparative adva ntage into full play, e spe cially the excl usive a dvantage s of climate, mountains a nd sea res ource s, to create a group of the city, t he pr ovince's "calle d" XX seafood, s nack foods a nd safe agricult ural products bra nd characteri stics . Meanwhil e, new i ndustry gui dance, s upport more farmers to participate i n entre prene urs hip, promoti ng large-s cale pr oje cts such a s be d and breakfasts, farm, see d breedi ng base construction. Four i s the mechanism innovation of the article. Dee pe n agricultural reform, focusing on s upporti ng foster profes sional major, family farms, cooper atives, enter prise s and other new s ubj ects of agricultural ma nagement, impr ove agricultural pr oducti on a nd operation of large -scale, professi onal leve l. Advance the reform of property right system in rural areas , to pay s peci al attention to land rights, improve t he function of property rights tradi ng center to gui de la nd management to professi onal users , family farms, cooperatives, lea ding e nterprise s in circulation. Spare no effort to pr omote the province's "Trinity" farmer cooperative e conomy organi zation system reform of County building, and actively ex plore the Trinity of production, s upply and marketing, cre ditFarmer cooperat ive e conomy organi zation system, real orga nic aggregates up to al l kinds of business e ntities, clos ely linke d to the all a spe cts of pr oducti on a nd marketing. ( B) to make the country side m ore bea utiful. Promoting the construction of new t owns and new count rysi de rea ctions together, stre ngthe ning the construction of rural e co -envir onment, create the bea utiful country side construction upgra des, maki ng rural areas more l ivable, suita ble for industr y, and travel. A focus on rural e nvironme nt impr ovement. As far as th e rural, the most ba sic i s to make the e nvironme nt clea n and or derly. Poll ution to extensively mobilize t he mas ses conti nue to carry water, clear rivers, down vi olations, treatment of blea chi ng, s uch as wa ste reduction, flow ering tree "big six", vigorously carry out waste reducti on, re source re cover y, impr ove the clea ning me cha nism, e nha nce t he level of meticul ous manageme nt of t he v il lage. Second, we must pay s pecial attention to t he be autiful re side ntial building. A dher e to the "planning a hea d, be cau se village system, combi nation clas sification impleme ntation, dem olition, alteration simulta ne ously" poli cy, vig orously impleme nt the "five hundred" be autiful countrysi de construction, a ctively pr omote "bea utiful house" pil ot expa nsion. Ar ound 10 4 nati onal r oad, Ling Road, l ongji nda dao, sea roa d, Ju XI Liao road t o cat ch the five side s of the main roa ds i n about 200 village s, beautif ul countrysi de features boutique village created, g ood job on planning, environmental protecti on, cult ural heritage , industri al devel opme nt, crafting li nes to create the bea utiful rural sce ner y, bouti que village breed chara cteristics. No matter which

生:是对的,因为 1 只有约数 1,不符合质数和合数的条件。 师:那么怎样去判断一个数是质数还是合数呢? 生:很简单,看这个数约数的个数有几个?只有两个,就是质数,两个以上就是合数。 师:在这里如果要出现一个判断题你会怎么问? 生:问:自然数不是质数就是合数。 生:我还想到了,就是自然数可以分成 1,质数,合数。 【分析: 】教师通过让学生利用已有的知识,找一个数的约数,分类(诊断,定目标) , 是一个独立学习的过程。师生互动是学习的核心,通过师生间的质疑,解疑,很流畅的学习 了新知。 在这里并非是 (是与不是) 问答式的教学, 而是充分体现了学生是数学学习的主人, 教师是数学学习的组织者,引导者与合作者这一课堂教学理念。其实在这一教学过程中,学 生的创新(1 既不是质数,也不是合数对吗?)这一学生的提问得以体现。 3、 由师道尊严向尊重赞赏学生转变 传统的教学中,教师是至高无上的。学生必须一切服从教师。两者之间的关系是一种尊 重与被尊重的关系。学生必须尊重老师,老师理所当然的是被尊重的。然而,却忽视了学生 的地位。 在学生尊重教师的同时, 教师却忽视了学生应有的尊重, 更谈不上赞赏。 新课程里, 教师的行为必须有所改变。因为教师和学生的地位是平等的。教师要尊重一切的学生。赞赏 每一位学生的独特性、兴趣、爱好、专长;赞赏每一位学生所付出的努力和所表现出来的善 意;赞赏每一位学生对教科书的质疑和对自己的超越。 【案例二】 这是我校一位青年教师在给一年级学生上数学课的案例,内容是“0 的认识” 。教师在 “田”字格里写了一个“0” ,谁知刚写完,底下就有学生大声说: “老师,你这个 0 写得不 好,还要写得斜一点,扁一点,你写得太圆了。 ”老师回头看了看学生们,马上问大家: “能 允许我再写一遍吗?”学生说: “可以” 。老师又工整地写了一遍“0” 。在写“0”的时侯学 生发出如释重负的喊声“好多了!好多了! ”老师笑眯眯地回头说“谢谢你们对我的鼓励, 现在请同学们每个人写一个 0,我相信你们一定比老师写得还要好! ”于是每个孩子都很认 真地练习写 0,力争能超过老师。 【分析: 】这个案例中,学生在这种民主、和谐欢快的气氛中学习,怎么能不拥有学习 的自信?这个老师在孩子给他提出要求后,他能够尊重学生,以“能允许我再写一遍吗?” 询问学生,把学生放在主体地位,师生之间只有价值的平等而没有地位高低之分,老师用尊 重和真诚去对待自己的学生,没有矫揉造作、故作姿态,没有“为赋新词强说愁”的无奈与 空洞,有的只是自然、真切的和谐之美。 【案例三】 这是我在听一位教师在教学计算“十几减九“时的片段,在出示 15-9 后,问学生:你 准备怎样计算?经过短暂的思考后,学生非常踊跃的举起了小手,说出了先用 10-9=1 再用 1+5=6 的计算过程,接着老师请学生评价这种计算方法, 一个学生:这种方法简便,因为 10 减几我们都会算,先用 10 减 9,再用得数加上个位 上的数就行了,计算很容易。 回答后大多数学生都表示同意。老师也颌首表示赞许,这正是老师想要的答案。不料, 这时有个学生轻声的说:我还有一种简便的方法。老师很高兴地请他说说看。 这个学生说:15-9 也可以先用后面的 9-5=4,再用剩下的 10-4=6 计算也很方便,而且 只要是十几减几都可以这样算。 面对学生的超越, 老师不由的为之喝彩: “你太了不起了, 老师都没有想到这样的方法! ” 全班学生也给他投以敬佩的目光。而发言的学生也露出了笑容,脸上写满了自信。接下来后 我边听课边观察那个学生,而整节课,那个学生的学习状态都非常的好。

as long a s they caug ht up pea ch Lake a nd vill age after eight acre s to create a sta ndard, even if the County fi nancial to be nervous, the County Governme nt will fulfil their commitments, a nd 3 million Yua n/vi llage of s ubsi dies . Thir d, we m ust pay s pe cial attention to devel opment of bea uty industr y. 任 负 人 室 科 管 分 对 还 务 业 线 条 抓 既 员 子 班 组 小 导 领 作 工 设 建 政 廉 风 党 统 系 了 立 成 , 求 要 ”的 责 双 岗 “一 照 按

Construction and traditi onal vill ages a nd beautiful countrysi de protecti on of history a nd cult ure village , rural tourism, bed a nd breakfast in combi ning economi c, on rural t ouri sm devel opment i n pre cis e and accurate positi oni ng, preci sion marketing, s upply, and vigorously promote t he beautiful r ural lands cape of rural tourism complex, li ne, fas hion boutique farm village construction and strive to buil d a group of XX feature quality bouti que accommodation proj ect. (C) efforts to get farmers to become eve n richer. "Off not well -off, the key to fellow", t he "three agri cult ure", final destinati on was impr oving farmers ' welfare, impr oving farmers ' livi ng standards . Focus on t hree as pect s: one i s

"increasi ng income-ge nerating" efforts. Actively developing t he characteri stic agriculture , proces sing, e -commerce, farm and be d and breakfast in e conomy, ens ure a stabl e operating income growth. Deepen the "three rights" rights em poweri ng the reform, promoti ng the pr operty i ncome growth. Strengtheni ng of farmers ' skills trai ning, i ncrea se empl oyment levels , prom oting s ustaine d growt h in wage i ncome. G uide e nterpri ses to stre ngthe n social res ponsi bilit y, equality and mutual be nefit, and signe d a contract of purchase a nd sale of agricultural product s for farmers, cooperatives a nd farmers are encour aged "guara nteed ear nings + share" distribution system, s haring the value -added benefits of industrial development. Se cond in t he growi ng collective efforts. City ha s devel ope d the impl ementation of village -level colle ctive economy three years cultivating meter, Re quires t hre e years of hard w ork and largely kongke cun, the maj ority of villages have operating income . Against thi s targ et, we have to be base d on local conditions, use your hea d, a nd a ctively explor e and find ways , and ensure completi on of tasks in t he cit y. Thir d, w ork on strengthe ned safeguards. Adva nci ng pre cisi on of poverty, improve the low -income house hol d tracking , dynamic manageme nt mechanism, e specially for "unemploye d ca n hold, una ble to get out of poverty" of pov erty, further strengtheni ng the fallba ck of s ubsi stence allowances a nd s oci al assi stance, and address t he ba sic needs of poor people. D eepe ning t he reform of publi c servi ces i n rural areas, focus on resolvi ng pr omine nt weakne ss of rural publi c servi ce a nd people's livel ihood facilities, such as t hrough the teaching, me dical a nd other ways t o improve e ducational level s, improvi ng healt h conditions in r ural areas. By encouraging the Ce ntral village to s et up day care centres t o pr omote ol d-age home, r ural elderly pe nsi on probl ems. Thir d, firmly grasp a nd conti nue d to play w ell "five water treatment of" winni ng the war on Fe bruary 2 9 this year, the provi nce' s "five water treatment

holi day, pensi on a nd health, cult ural and creative experience, s ports health, farming, rural be d and breakfasts i n new formats. T hree is t he brand to cre ate articles . XX agricultural comparative adva ntage into full play, e spe cially the excl usive a dvantages of climate, mountains a nd sea res ource s, to create a group of the city, t he pr ovince's "calle d" XX seafood, s nack foods a nd safe agricult ural products bra nd characteri stics . Meanwhil e, new i ndustry gui dance, s upport more farmers to participate i n entre prene urs hip, promoti ng large-s cale pr oje cts such a s be d and breakfasts, farm, see d breedi ng base construction. Four i s the mechanism innov ation of the article. Dee pe n agricultural reform, focusing on s upporti ng foster profes sional major, family farms, cooperatives, enter prise s and other new s ubj ects of agricultural ma nagement, impr ove agricultural pr oducti on a nd operation of large -scale, professi onal leve l. Advance the reform of property right system in rural areas , to pay s peci al attention to land rights, improve t he function of property rights tradi ng center to gui de la nd management to professi onal users , family farms, cooperatives, lea ding e nterprise s in circulation. Spare no effort to pr omote the province's "Trinity" farmer cooperative e conomy organi zation syste m reform of County building, and actively ex plore the Trinity of production, s upply and marketing, cre ditFarmer cooperative e conomy organi zation system, real orga nic aggregates up to al l kinds of business e ntities, clos ely linke d to the all a spe cts of pr oducti on a nd marketing. ( B) to make the country side m ore bea utiful. Promoting the construction of new t owns and new countrysi de rea ctions together, stre ngthe ning the construction of rural e co -envir onment, create the bea utiful country side construction upgra des, maki ng rural areas more l ivable, suita ble for industr y, and travel. A focus on rural e nvironme nt impr ovement. As far as the rural, the most ba sic i s to make the e nvironme nt clea n and or derly. Poll ution to extensively mobilize t he mas ses conti nue to carry water, clear rivers, down vi olations, treatment of blea chi ng, s uch as wa ste reduction, flow ering tree "big six", vigorously carry out waste reducti on, re source re cover y, impr ove the clea ning me cha nism, e nha nce t he level of meticul ous manageme nt of the v il lage. Second, we must pay s pecial attention to t he be autiful re side ntial building. A dher e to the "planning a hea d, be cause v illage system, combi nation clas sification impleme ntation, dem olition, alteration simulta ne ously" poli cy, vig orously impleme nt the "f ive hundred" be autiful countrysi de construction, a ctively pr omote "bea utiful house" pil ot expa nsion. Ar ound 10 4 nati onal r oad, Ling Road, l ongji nda dao, sea roa d, Ju XI Liao road t o cat ch the five side s of the main roa ds i n about 200 village s, beautiful co untrysi de features boutique village created, g ood job on planning, environmental protecti on, cult ural heritage , industrial de vel opme nt, crafting li nes to create the bea utiful rural sce ner y, bouti que village breed chara cteristics. No matter which

【分析: 】课堂上学生的思维常常超越老师预设的范围,让老师始料不及,教师应该为 学生的独特性和富有个性化的理解和表达喝彩, 学生拥有并体验了作为学生的全部尊严, 享 受着被人尊重的快乐,就会建立起自信和进一步学习的信心。 二、转变教师行为,建立全新的数学课堂 在新课程理念的指导下,数学课堂要体现“四个变化” :即“生活化” , “活动化” , “自 主化” , “情感化” 。 1、变“书本”数学为“生活”数学 《数学课程标准》指出:强调从学生已有的生活经验出发,让学生亲身经历将实际问题 抽象成数学模型并进行解释与应用的过程, 进而使学生获得对数学理解的同时, 在思维能力, 情感态度与价值观等多方面得到进步和发展。 【案例四】 教学“乘数是三位数的乘法”时,原题的内容是一个粮店三月份售出面粉 674 袋,每袋 25 千克,一共售出面粉多少千克?这样一道例题让学生感觉与自己生活太远,和白己的关系 又不是很密切,所以不能激发学生学习的兴趣,如果照着原例题讲,学生肯定会觉得枯燥无 味。于是,我们联系学生的生活来进行延伸。上课伊始,就让学生猜测一个滴水的水龙头每 天要白白流掉多少千克水?学生们一听是生活中经常能遇到的事情,兴趣盎然,有的猜测 5 千克,有的猜测 10 千克,还有的猜测 20 千克,有个别学生看到了课后的内容说出来是 12 千克。教师接着问,照这样计算,一年要流掉多少千克水?学生马上算出平年是 4380 千克, 闰年是 4392 千克。随着计算结果的出现,学生觉得非常吃惊: “哇!这么多呀!”看着学生吃 惊的样子,教师又提出新的要求: “你家所住的楼房一共有多少户?如果按一家一个水龙头计 算,一年要白白流掉多少水?” 【分析: 】虽说都是“乘数是三位数的乘法”的应用题,但是由于学生对来源于生活的 素材感兴趣,所以他们感觉不难而且有趣,同时体现了课程综合化要求,使学生受到了节约 用水的教育。这样,把教材中缺少生活气息的题材改编成了学生感兴趣的、活生生的题目, 使学生积极主动地投入到学习生活中, 让学生发现数学就在自己身边, 从而提高了学生用数 学思想来看待实际问题的能力。 2、变“听”数学为“活动”数学;变“讲”数学为“互动”数学 传统的课堂教学要求学生只听不说,只看不动。教师的“讲”牵着学生走,这种以教师 “讲” 为中心的教学, 过分强调教师在教学中的主导作用, 忽视教学活动中师生之间的互动, 限制了学生的主观能动性和独立创造性。新课程标准强调教师是学习的合作者、引导者、参 与者, 教学过程是师生交往, 共同发展的互动过程。 在教学中, 教师应该从学生的角度出发, 把课堂的主动权还给学生,向学生提供从事数学活动的机会,让学生在活动中发现,在活动 中运用,在活动中创造,并在过种中培养学生积极思考的习惯以及合作精神,增进学生运用 数学解决简单实际问题的信心,同时意识到自己在集体中的作用。 【案例五】 曾经听过这样的一堂课, 老师在讲到 “求长方体体积 “的时候, 忽然有一位学生站起来, 说长方体的体积他会求, 他想知道一只苹果的体积。 大家一下子愣住了, 接着纷纷议论起来。 有的说: 没学过计算苹果的体积; 有的说苹果的形状不规则。 这时, 教师向学生提出了建议: 可不可以把这个不规则体积转化成规则体积呢?经过一番动脑, 有的学生说: 用橡皮泥捏一 个苹果,再改捏成长方体,就知道了。有的说,把苹果切成长方体;有的说,这都不精确。 这时,老师端出一个盛了一些水的长方体容器,将苹果放入水中。学生一下子悟出只要量出 水面升起的高度,就可以算出苹果的体积。 【分析: 】在这次数学课堂里,教师是学生的朋友,二者的地方是平等的。师生成了学 习的伙伴,正是这种师生的互动,激发了学生的思维,调动了学生的学习积极性。

as long a s they caug ht up pea ch Lake a nd vill age after eight acre s to create a sta ndard, even if the County fi nancial to be nervous, the County Governme nt will fulfil t heir commitments, a nd 3 million Yua n/vi llage of s ubsi dies . Thir d, we m ust pay s pe cial attention to devel opment of bea uty industr y. 任 负 人 室 科 管 分 对 还 务 业 线 条 抓 既 员 子 班 组 小 导 领 作 工 设 建 政 廉 风 党 统 系 了 立 成 , 求 要 ”的 责 双 岗 “一 照 按

Construction and traditi onal vill ages a nd beautiful countrysi de protecti on of history a nd cult ure village , rural tourism, bed a nd breakfast in combi ning economi c, on rural t ouri sm devel opment i n pre cis e and accurate positi oni ng, preci sion marketing, s upply, and vigorously promote t he beautiful r ural lands cape of rural tourism complex, li ne, fas hion boutique farm village con struction and strive to buil d a group of XX feature quality bouti que accommodation proj ect. (C) efforts to get farmers to bec ome eve n richer. "Off not well -off, the key to fellow", t he "three agri cult ure", final destinati on was impr oving farmers ' welfare, impr oving farmers ' livi ng standards . Focus on t hree as pect s: one i s

"increasi ng income-ge nerating" efforts. Actively developing t he characteri stic agriculture , proces sing, e -commerce, farm and be d and breakfast in e conomy, ens ure a stabl e operating income growth. Deepen the "three rights" rights em poweri ng the reform, promoti ng the pr operty i ncome growth. Strengtheni ng of farmers ' skills trai ning, i ncrea se empl oyment levels , prom oting s ustaine d growt h in wage i ncome. G uide e nterpri ses to stre ngthe n social res ponsi bilit y, equality and mutual be nefit, and signe d a contract of purchase a nd sale of agricultural product s for farmer s, cooperatives a nd farmers are encouraged "guara nteed ear nings + share" distribution system, s haring the value -added benefits of industrial development. Se cond in t he growi ng collective efforts. City ha s devel ope d the impl ementation of village -level colle ctive economy three years cultivating meter, Re quires t hre e years of hard w ork and largely kongke cun, the maj ority of villages have operating income . Against thi s target, we have to be base d on local conditions, use your hea d, a nd a ctively explor e and find ways , and ensure completi on of tasks in t he cit y. Thir d, w ork on strengthe ned safeguards. Adva nci ng pre cisi on of poverty, improve the low -income house hol d tracking , dynamic manageme nt mechanism, e specially for "unemploye d ca n hold, una ble to get out of poverty" of pov erty, further strengtheni ng the fallba ck of s ubsi stence allowances a nd s oci al assi stance, and address t he ba sic needs of poor people. D eepe ning t he reform of publi c servi ces i n rural areas, focus on resolvi ng pr omine nt weakne ss of rural publi c servi ce a nd people's livel ihood facilities, such as t hrough the teaching, me dical a nd other ways t o improve e ducational level s, im provi ng healt h conditions in r ural areas. By encouraging the Ce ntral village to s et up day care centres t o pr omote ol d-age home, r ural elderly pe nsi on probl ems. Thir d, firmly grasp a nd conti nue d to play w ell "five water treatment of" winni ng the war on Fe bruary 2 9 this year, the provi nce' s "five water treatment

holi day, pensi on a nd health, cult ural and creative experience, s ports health, farming, rural be d and breakfasts i n new formats. T hree is t he brand to cre ate articles . XX agricultural comparative adva ntage into full play, e spe cially the excl usive a dvantage s of climate, mountains a nd sea res ource s, to create a group of the city, t he pr ovince's "calle d" XX seafood, s nack foods a nd safe agricult ural products bra nd characteri stics . Meanwhil e, new i ndustry gui dance, s upport more farmers to participate i n entre prene urs hip, promoti ng large-s cale pr oje cts such a s be d and breakfasts, farm, see d breedi ng base construction. Four i s the mechanism innovation of the article. Dee pe n agricultural reform, focusing on s upporti ng foster profes sional major, family farms, cooper atives, enter prise s and other new s ubj ects of agricultural ma nagement, impr ove agricultural pr oducti on a nd operation of large -scale, professi onal leve l. Advance the reform of property right system in rural areas , to pay s peci al attention to land rights, improve t he function of property rights tradi ng center to gui de la nd management to professi onal users , family farms, cooperatives, lea ding e nterprise s in circulation. Spare no effort to pr omote the province's "Trinity" farmer cooperative e conomy organi zation system reform of County building, and actively ex plore the Trinity of production, s upply and marketing, cre ditFarmer cooperat ive e conomy organi zation system, real orga nic aggregates up to al l kinds of business e ntities, clos ely linke d to the all a spe cts of pr oducti on a nd marketing. ( B) to make the country side m ore bea utiful. Promoting the construction of new t owns and new count rysi de rea ctions together, stre ngthe ning the construction of rural e co -envir onment, create the bea utiful country side construction upgra des, maki ng rural areas more l ivable, suita ble for industr y, and travel. A focus on rural e nvironme nt impr ovement. As far as th e rural, the most ba sic i s to make the e nvironme nt clea n and or derly. Poll ution to extensively mobilize t he mas ses conti nue to carry water, clear rivers, down vi olations, treatment of blea chi ng, s uch as wa ste reduction, flow ering tree "big six", vigorously carry out waste reducti on, re source re cover y, impr ove the clea ning me cha nism, e nha nce t he level of meticul ous manageme nt of t he v il lage. Second, we must pay s pecial attention to t he be autiful re side ntial building. A dher e to the "planning a hea d, be cau se village system, combi nation clas sification impleme ntation, dem olition, alteration simulta ne ously" poli cy, vig orously impleme nt the "five hundred" be autiful countrysi de construction, a ctively pr omote "bea utiful house" pil ot expa nsion. Ar ound 10 4 nati onal r oad, Ling Road, l ongji nda dao, sea roa d, Ju XI Liao road t o cat ch the five side s of the main roa ds i n about 200 village s, beautif ul countrysi de features boutique village created, g ood job on planning, environmental protecti on, cult ural heritage , industri al devel opme nt, crafting li nes to create the bea utiful rural sce ner y, bouti que village breed chara cteristics. No matter which

【案例六】 教学二年级《认识人民币》一课时,教师让学生当服务员,介绍文具店卖什么;让学生 当解说员,介绍如何辨认人民币;让学生小试身手,认识元、角、分及其换算关系;让学生 当热心人,为顾客换一换零钱。 【分析: 】通过这一系列的活动,使学生在活动中认识人民币及体会小面额人民币之间 的关系, 为学生提供积极思考和合作交流的空间, 把学生的生活经验与数学学习紧密结合起 来,从而使数学课堂成为生活与数学的桥梁。 3、变“枯燥”数学为“有趣”数学 新课程强调要根据学生的心理特点,安排教学内容,设置教学情景,激发学生的好奇心 与学习的兴趣, 坚定学好数学的信心。 而传统的数学教学是以能否完成预定的教学任务为己 任,从不考虑学生的感受,教师独霸讲台,机械呆板,枯燥乏味,结果教师讲得口干舌燥, 学生听得晕头转向。课堂成为折磨学生心灵的“囚室” 。在新课程理念下的数学课堂里,教 学就要实现由知识中心向以人的发展为中心的转化, 充分满足学生的心理需要, 让课堂真正 成为学生探究未知、享受欢乐的乐园。利用互联网的丰富资源,创设、模拟各种与教学内容 相联系的情境, 可以使我们的数学课堂教学的情趣化得以体现, 从而激发学生学习数学的兴 趣。 【案例七】 例如,让学生回答问题: “每本书多少钱?”有的学生总是回答: “每本书 6 钱。 ”虽然 教师多次进行纠正,但仍有学生固执己见。为此,那老师在网络上下载了一些资料,设计了 一个动画故事课件:一次,猪妈妈在检查猪宝宝的作业时,发现猪宝宝把问题“每本书多少 钱?” 答成 “每本书几钱” , 就问猪宝宝为什么要这样答。 猪宝宝说 “老师说过, 问你什么 就 答什么。 ”猪妈妈接过话头: “那问你有多高,你就答有 3 高?问你多重就 4 重?问你有多少 书就答有 10 书吗”没等动画放完,学生们就迫不及待地举手叫了起来: “错了,错了” 。多 媒体技术所营造的教学情趣,大大地满足了学生的求知兴趣,活跃了课堂气氛,调动起学生 的自主学习的积极性。 三、转变对学生的评价方式 教师要重视评价学生数学学习的过程, 在传统教学中, 对于知识的掌握我们通常就看作 业情况或上课发言等的情况,而往往会忽视对学生学习过程的评价。在新课程理念下,对学 生的学习过程评价, 应该考察学生是否积极主动地参与数学学习活动, 是否乐意与同伴进行 交流和合作,是否具有学习数学的兴趣。 【案例八】 我们在一年级课堂教学中常常会看到要求学生拿出学具摆一摆。如一年级学生学习 9 加几的进位加法时,由于学生认知水平的差异,有的学生已经掌握了计算方法,但老师仍然 规定每个学生都要用学具摆一摆,9+3=?先在左边放 9 个木块,再在右边放 3 个木块,怎 样移动算出一共是多少木块,会做的也摆,不会做的也摆,课堂气氛甚是活跃,殊不知好多 同学是出于老师要求的,并非是出于自身意愿,不得不摆,奉命操作,无动于衷,失去了借 助实物演示探讨算法的作用,甚至在巩固练习阶段,已经都能直接计算结果,仍要求学生先 摆学具,再写得数,这样做不仅拘泥于形式,而且是一种累赘,试问这样又该如何评价学生 呢?“嗯,大家摆得真好,算得都很好。 ”用一句这样的话笼统的加以了评价,又有什么意 思呢?那么我们是不是可以换一种方式进行教学呢?比如还是 9+3=?同样每个学生的桌 上都有一些小木块,教师不要规定要求学生拿出小木块摆一摆,只需提醒一下, “你们可以 用学具摆一摆,算一算,也可以不用。 ”这对于学生听来是一种自我的挑战,是一种主动参 与学习的体验,增强了学生对学习的自信心。好的学生不用学具直接计算结果,能力弱一点 的学生也能借助学具计算出结果。这样的评价是显而易见的。

as long a s they caug ht up pea ch Lake a nd vill age after eight acre s to create a sta ndard, even if the County fi nancial to be nervous, the County Governme nt will fulfil their commitments, a nd 3 million Yua n/vi llage of s ubsi dies . Thir d, we m ust pay s pe cial attention to devel opment of bea uty industr y. 任 负 人 室 科 管 分 对 还 务 业 线 条 抓 既 员 子 班 组 小 导 领 作 工 设 建 政 廉 风 党 统 系 了 立 成 , 求 要 ”的 责 双 岗 “一 照 按

Construction and traditi onal vill ages a nd beautiful countrysi de protecti on of history a nd cult ure village , rural tourism, bed a nd breakfast in combi ning economi c, on rural t ouri sm devel opment i n pre cis e and accurate positi oni ng, preci sion marketing, s upply, and vigorously promote t he beautiful r ural lands cape of rural tourism complex, li ne, fas hion boutique farm village construction and strive to buil d a group of XX feature quality bouti que accommodation proj ect. (C) efforts to get farmers to become eve n richer. "Off not well -off, the key to fellow", t he "three agri cult ure", final destinati on was impr oving farmers ' welfare, impr oving farmers ' livi ng standards . Focus on t hree as pect s: one i s

"increasi ng income-ge nerating" efforts. Actively developing t he characteri stic agriculture , proces sing, e -commerce, farm and be d and breakfast in e conomy, ens ure a stabl e operating income growth. Deepen the "three rights" rights em poweri ng the reform, promoti ng the pr operty i ncome growth. Strengtheni ng of farmers ' skills trai ning, i ncrea se empl oyment levels , prom oting s ustaine d growt h in wage i ncome. G uide e nterpri ses to stre ngthe n social res ponsi bilit y, equality and mutual be nefit, and signe d a contract of purchase a nd sale of agricultural product s for farmers, cooperatives a nd farmers are encour aged "guara nteed ear nings + share" distribution system, s haring the value -added benefits of industrial development. Se cond in t he growi ng collective efforts. City ha s devel ope d the impl ementation of village -level colle ctive economy three years cultivating meter, Re quires t hre e years of hard w ork and largely kongke cun, the maj ority of villages have operating income . Against thi s targ et, we have to be base d on local conditions, use your hea d, a nd a ctively explor e and find ways , and ensure completi on of tasks in t he cit y. Thir d, w ork on strengthe ned safeguards. Adva nci ng pre cisi on of poverty, improve the low -income house hol d tracking , dynamic manageme nt mechanism, e specially for "unemploye d ca n hold, una ble to get out of poverty" of pov erty, further strengtheni ng the fallba ck of s ubsi stence allowances a nd s oci al assi stance, and address t he ba sic needs of poor people. D eepe ning t he reform of publi c servi ces i n rural areas, focus on resolvi ng pr omine nt weakne ss of rural publi c servi ce a nd people's livel ihood facilities, such as t hrough the teaching, me dical a nd other ways t o improve e ducational level s, improvi ng healt h conditions in r ural areas. By encouraging the Ce ntral village to s et up day care centres t o pr omote ol d-age home, r ural elderly pe nsi on probl ems. Thir d, firmly grasp a nd conti nue d to play w ell "five water treatment of" winni ng the war on Fe bruary 2 9 this year, the provi nce' s "five water treatment

holi day, pensi on a nd health, cult ural and creative experience, s ports health, farming, rural be d and breakfasts i n new formats. T hree is t he brand to cre ate articles . XX agricultural comparative adva ntage into full play, e spe cially the excl usive a dvantages of climate, mountains a nd sea res ource s, to create a group of the city, t he pr ovince's "calle d" XX seafood, s nack foods a nd safe agricult ural products bra nd characteri stics . Meanwhil e, new i ndustry gui dance, s upport more farmers to participate i n entre prene urs hip, promoti ng large-s cale pr oje cts such a s be d and breakfasts, farm, see d breedi ng base construction. Four i s the mechanism innov ation of the article. Dee pe n agricultural reform, focusing on s upporti ng foster profes sional major, family farms, cooperatives, enter prise s and other new s ubj ects of agricultural ma nagement, impr ove agricultural pr oducti on a nd operation of large -scale, professi onal leve l. Advance the reform of property right system in rural areas , to pay s peci al attention to land rights, improve t he function of property rights tradi ng center to gui de la nd management to professi onal users , family farms, cooperatives, lea ding e nterprise s in circulation. Spare no effort to pr omote the province's "Trinity" farmer cooperative e conomy organi zation syste m reform of County building, and actively ex plore the Trinity of production, s upply and marketing, cre ditFarmer cooperative e conomy organi zation system, real orga nic aggregates up to al l kinds of business e ntities, clos ely linke d to the all a spe cts of pr oducti on a nd marketing. ( B) to make the country side m ore bea utiful. Promoting the construction of new t owns and new countrysi de rea ctions together, stre ngthe ning the construction of rural e co -envir onment, create the bea utiful country side construction upgra des, maki ng rural areas more l ivable, suita ble for industr y, and travel. A focus on rural e nvironme nt impr ovement. As far as the rural, the most ba sic i s to make the e nvironme nt clea n and or derly. Poll ution to extensively mobilize t he mas ses conti nue to carry water, clear rivers, down vi olations, treatment of blea chi ng, s uch as wa ste reduction, flow ering tree "big six", vigorously carry out waste reducti on, re source re cover y, impr ove the clea ning me cha nism, e nha nce t he level of meticul ous manageme nt of the v il lage. Second, we must pay s pecial attention to t he be autiful re side ntial building. A dher e to the "planning a hea d, be cause v illage system, combi nation clas sification impleme ntation, dem olition, alteration simulta ne ously" poli cy, vig orously impleme nt the "f ive hundred" be autiful countrysi de construction, a ctively pr omote "bea utiful house" pil ot expa nsion. Ar ound 10 4 nati onal r oad, Ling Road, l ongji nda dao, sea roa d, Ju XI Liao road t o cat ch the five side s of the main roa ds i n about 200 village s, beautiful co untrysi de features boutique village created, g ood job on planning, environmental protecti on, cult ural heritage , industrial de vel opme nt, crafting li nes to create the bea utiful rural sce ner y, bouti que village breed chara cteristics. No matter which

总而言之, 小学数学课程改革不仅仅要改革教师的教育观念, 还要改变他们每天都在进 行着的习以为常的教学方式、教学行为。新课程理念下,要求教师转变行为,建立和谐的师 生关系;建立全新的数学课堂;拓展自我发展的空间;转变对学生、课堂的评价方式。新课 程中教师行为的变化,已经不取决于个人的选择,而是一种教育情境的规定,一种课程发展 的趋势,这种历史性的变化将铸造一代新型的教师。我们要趁着数学课程改革的大背景,抓 住机遇,更新观念,提高素质,改变行为,与时俱进,走进新课程,实施新课程,研究新课 程,为培育新世纪的人才不断探索和努力。

as long a s they caug ht up pea ch Lake a nd vill age after eight acre s to create a sta ndard, even if the County fi nancial to be nervous, the County Governme nt will fulfil t heir commitments, a nd 3 million Yua n/vi llage of s ubsi dies . Thir d, we m ust pay s pe cial attention to devel opment of bea uty industr y. 任 负 人 室 科 管 分 对 还 务 业 线 条 抓 既 员 子 班 组 小 导 领 作 工 设 建 政 廉 风 党 统 系 了 立 成 , 求 要 ”的 责 双 岗 “一 照 按

Construction and traditi onal vill ages a nd beautiful countrysi de protecti on of history a nd cult ure village , rural tourism, bed a nd breakfast in combi ning economi c, on rural t ouri sm devel opment i n pre cis e and accurate positi oni ng, preci sion marketing, s upply, and vigorously promote t he beautiful r ural lands cape of rural tourism complex, li ne, fas hion boutique farm village con struction and strive to buil d a group of XX feature quality bouti que accommodation proj ect. (C) efforts to get farmers to bec ome eve n richer. "Off not well -off, the key to fellow", t he "three agri cult ure", final destinati on was impr oving farmers ' welfare, impr oving farmers ' livi ng standards . Focus on t hree as pect s: one i s

"increasi ng income-ge nerating" efforts. Actively developing t he characteri stic agriculture , proces sing, e -commerce, farm and be d and breakfast in e conomy, ens ure a stabl e operating income growth. Deepen the "three rights" rights em poweri ng the reform, promoti ng the pr operty i ncome growth. Strengtheni ng of farmers ' skills trai ning, i ncrea se empl oyment levels , prom oting s ustaine d growt h in wage i ncome. G uide e nterpri ses to stre ngthe n social res ponsi bilit y, equality and mutual be nefit, and signe d a contract of purchase a nd sale of agricultural product s for farmer s, cooperatives a nd farmers are encouraged "guara nteed ear nings + share" distribution system, s haring the value -added benefits of industrial development. Se cond in t he growi ng collective efforts. City ha s devel ope d the impl ementation of village -level colle ctive economy three years cultivating meter, Re quires t hre e years of hard w ork and largely kongke cun, the maj ority of villages have operating income . Against thi s target, we have to be base d on local conditions, use your hea d, a nd a ctively explor e and find ways , and ensure completi on of tasks in t he cit y. Thir d, w ork on strengthe ned safeguards. Adva nci ng pre cisi on of poverty, improve the low -income house hol d tracking , dynamic manageme nt mechanism, e specially for "unemploye d ca n hold, una ble to get out of poverty" of pov erty, further strengtheni ng the fallba ck of s ubsi stence allowances a nd s oci al assi stance, and address t he ba sic needs of poor people. D eepe ning t he reform of publi c servi ces i n rural areas, focus on resolvi ng pr omine nt weakne ss of rural publi c servi ce a nd people's livel ihood facilities, such as t hrough the teaching, me dical a nd other ways t o improve e ducational level s, im provi ng healt h conditions in r ural areas. By encouraging the Ce ntral village to s et up day care centres t o pr omote ol d-age home, r ural elderly pe nsi on probl ems. Thir d, firmly grasp a nd conti nue d to play w ell "five water treatment of" winni ng the war on Fe bruary 2 9 this year, the provi nce' s "five water treatment



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