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高中必修二:历史总结:第一单元 古代中国经济的基本结构与特点


promotion of empl oyment, form a reasona ble a nd or derly patter n of income di stribution, build a m ore fair and sustai nable social se curity system s, medical and healt h system reform. The ple nary, i nnovation of social gover nance, must focus on the mainte nance of fundame ntal interests of the ove rwhelming maj ority of the people, maximize factors, enhance s ocial development, im proving social gover nance, the i nterests of national se curity, ensure that t he pe opl e live and work, social stability and order. To improve social governance, stimulati ng social organizati on, i nnovative and e ffective system of preventing a nd res olving social conflicts , improvi ng the publ ic se curity sy stem, set up the National Security Council, national se curity systems a nd national se curity strategy to e ns ure nati onal s ecurity. Plenary sessi on, the constructi on of ecol ogica l civiliz ation, you m ust establi sh systems of ecological system, using the system to pr otect the ecological environment. To improve natural re sources a sset pr operty right system and use control, red li ne of delimitation of ecological prote ction, res ource s pai d use system and ecologi cal compe nsati on system i n ecologi cal envi ronment pr otecti on management system reform. Ple nary se ssi on, centeri ng on buildi ng a listeni ng part y command, ca n win a nd having a fine style of the pe ople' s army, a strong army under t he ne w situati on of the party Goal s, restricti ng the devel opment of national defense a nd army buil ding i s solve d outstanding contradicti ons and problems, innovation and deve lopme nt of military the ory, enhance military strategic g uida nce, improve t he military strategy in t he new period, buil ding a mo der n military force system wit h Chine se characteri stics . To dee pen t he adj ustment of pers onnel system reform in t he army, military poli cy and system reform, pr omote the devel opme nt of military and civili an integrati on dept h. Pl enary se ssi on stre ssed t hat comprehensive reform must be to stre ngthe n and improve t he party's leadershi p, give full play to the core role of the party commands the overall situation a nd coor dinati ng all partie s, impr oving the party's lea ding w ater ... M argin. Challe nged t he lea der s hip of t he Communist Party of China, Marx ism-Le nini sm and Ma o Zedong thoug ht by De ng Xi ao -pi ng's flag, repl ace d by thr ee repre sentatives a nd t he harmoni c s ociet y. The former Communist Party s pirit and s ocial cohesi on poi nt of almost all political makeov er. Characteri stics of socialism pu blic ownershi p is s hifting to private ow nershi p, planned reg ulation and market regulation, the pr oletarian regime controlle d by the elite. Of universa l equality, fair ness a nd basi c pri nci ples of distri buti on system i s socia list society, how ever after economic m onopolized by powerful, vested i nterests grow, empl oyers do not have the same stat us, hardly seems fair social di stribution. State key protection of ca pital interests rat her tha n the interest s of citize ns, had been hits the bottom of the proletariat

(一)古代中国经济的基本结构与特点
一. 1.(1)刀耕火种:①距今一万多年前②石斧、石刀。 (2)耜耕阶段:①距今八九前年前②耒耜、石锄、石犁
③提高功效,取得更好收成。 (3)传统农业:①夏商时期②青铜农具③技术提高,懂得开沟排灌、除草培土、沤制绿肥、治 虫灭害。 (4)铁犁牛耕:①春秋开始出现铁制农具,战国时期形成铁犁牛耕耕作方式②修建郑国渠、都江堰,发明槔③成 为中国封建社会基本耕作方式,农业生产完全变成一家一户的个体小生产,由粗放耕作走向了精耕细作。 ( 5)总结:中国 古代农业经济基本特点:小农经济;中国古代农业的优良传统与特点:精耕细作。 2.(1)中国原始公社时期:氏族公社土地所有制。奴隶社会:奴隶主贵族土地国有制,受田者只有使用权,无所有权, 不能买卖和转让,并向国王缴纳贡赋。 (2)井田制:①奴隶主贵族役使蔗民和奴隶集体耕作,收获物全归奴隶主贵族②公 田四周为私田,劳动者所用③劳动者使用私田,无偿为奴隶主贵族耕种公田为条件,并要缴纳贡物和赋税④于商朝存在, 西周完备。 (3)春秋时期井田制日趋瓦解,战国时期,允许自由买卖,封建土地所有制逐步取代奴隶贵族土地所有制。 二.1.小农经济:①战国时期,随着铁犁牛耕和封建土地所有制的发展②特点:以家庭为生产单位,农业与家庭手工业相结 合,是自给自足的自然经济;长达两千多年封建社会里占主导地位;精耕细作成为古代中国的优良传统和主要特点。 2.精耕细作成就: (1)耕地面积扩大(2)复种指数提高:实行间作、套作、轮作复种(3)采取多种技术措施:①耕作: 西汉发明耧犁,唐代发明曲辕犁,宋元加以改进②排灌:翻车、筒车③施肥:商周使用粪肥、绿肥(4)科学育种:穗选法、 株选法(5)巧用农时:二十四节气 三.1.(1)官营手工业:①夏、商、西周时期:手工业为官府所垄断,商、周王朝实行“工商食官”制度②春秋、战国时 期:出现民营手工业和家庭手工业③封建社会时期:官营手工业,由政府直接控制和经营,主生产武器等军用品和供皇室、 贵族消费的生活用品。 (2)民营手工业:①由民间私人经营,有较大主动性②劳动者有较多人身自由没有报酬,劳动兴趣 较高③主产民间消费产品,按市场需要开发,明中居主位。 (3)家庭手工业:①是农户的副业,在自然经济时代占有相当 比重②产品主供自己消费和缴纳赋税,明代中期,产品日渐商品化。 2.(1)规模巨大:手工业商品远销亚、非、欧各大洲,西方称中国“丝国” “瓷器大国” 。 (2)分工细密:①丝织业: 中国是世界最早养蚕织丝的国家,战国时期能织出锦、绣、罗, 、纱等多类织品,汉代又增加绫、绮、纨,唐代又分许多品 种。 (3)制瓷业:①商代已有原始瓷器②东汉青瓷,北朝白瓷,元代青花瓷,明代彩瓷,宋代武大名窟,元朝时景德镇成 为全国著名的制瓷中心。 3.(1)冶炼技术:①商代的青铜冶炼技术相当纯熟②春秋时期已能冶炼生铁,东汉杜诗发明水力鼓风冶铁工具水排, 南北朝发明灌钢法。 (2)造船技术:①商代创制木板船,商代出现帆②唐代首创水密舱。 (3)造纸、印制技术 四.1.(1)工商食官:商代后期,货币广泛流通,官府控制着绝大部分手工业品的生产,也控制商业经营,形成“工商食 官” 。 (2)民营商业:春秋战国时期,商业冲破“工商食官”制度的束缚走向繁荣。 (3)商业的发展:①秦朝:建立统一的 多民族国家②西汉:开通海陆两条丝绸之路。 2.唐宋元商品经济发展: (1)原因:隋朝大运河开通,唐代南方经济发展,使农副产品和手工业品大量涌入市场。 (2) 表现:①集市增多:a.唐代:草市、虚市 b.北宋:草市虚市遍布城市周围一些村镇②商业大都会繁荣:a.唐代:都城长安与 洛阳,是全国的商业大都会,长安城内有东、西两市 b.宋代:城市彻底打破坊市制度。都城沛京城里,随处都有商铺、邸 店、柜坊②唐代后期:兑汇飞钱③北宋:纸币—交子④元朝:海外贸易繁盛,大都是闻名世界的商业大都市。 3.商帮: (1)背景:明代中期,商业经济繁荣。 (2)地域性的商人集团—商帮,以徽商与晋商最为著名。 (3)特点:① 巨额商业资本,活跃于全国各地,足走出国门②高度重视商业信誉和商业道德③以儒道经商,徽商和晋商放映了中国传统 商业经营的最高水平 五.1.明清资本主义萌芽: (1)产生:①明中期以后,商品经济发达的江南地区,小产品生产者两极分化,要成商人或手工 业作坊主②在丝织中心苏州和杭州,开设手工厂:机户出资,机工出力,他们形成雇佣与被雇佣的关系③在棉纺织业中心 松江,开设暑袜店,形成雇佣与被雇佣关系。 (2)发展:清代手工工场规模扩大,出现资本主义萌芽。 (3)评价:①明清 资本主义萌芽发展十分缓慢而曲折,直到鸦片战争前夕,始终处于萌芽状态②就全国而言,自给自足的自然经济任然占据 主要地位,资本主义的萌芽则是稀疏而脆弱。 2.重农抑商:明清两朝,一直坚持战国时期商鞅变法实行的“重农抑商”政策。 (1)重农:重视农业,保护小农经济, 以确保封建赋税和地租征收,明清采取措施,抑制土地兼并(2)抑商:限制工商业发展,明清继承传统的禁榷制度,对民 营商业,遍设关卡,重重征税。 (3)评价:①明清两朝,在明代前期和清代康熙,雍正乾隆时期得到较认真的贯彻。促进 当时农业发展,但对工商业的限制和搜刮,却呈现日益严重的趋势②重农抑商政策:不仅阻碍工商业的发展,而且强化了 农业和家庭手工业相结和的自然经济,这是资本主义萌芽发展的一大阻碍。
Obvi ousl y, face China's Socialist system, the Communist Party is not the party. In that case, politi cal chaos has been very t ig ht. Is remodeli ng or reconstr ucti on, i s a corre ction or a st ove. Whether t o turn rig ht or left, is ba ck to the source or put forwar d new politi cal idea s. 构 结 部 内 解 了 来 用 上 幕 屏 在 示 显 并 集 收 种 这 将 器 仪 过 们 人 同 相 不 回 生 产 会 就 碍 障 到 碰 果 如 体 物 透 穿 以 可 且 而 播 传 方 定 向 能 超 , 样 一 音 声 的 通 普 和 This is to determine the road problems in Chi na, is al so the key out of the dee p water of the reform of the e conomic system. After 18, the new Central colle ctive leaders hip atta che s great importance to political orie ntation. First, the "Central eight article s" as a starting point, starti ng from the Ce ntral G overnment's self -restraint, whi ch prea ches and pr o-image, broug ht fresh feeling to t he communit y. Secondly, before reform and ope ning up a nd reform and openi ng two periods after non-negative, untying the tangle of the society a long time on t his iss ue. T hird, a new ge neration of party l eaders on various occa sions to Ma o Ze-Dong and Mao Ze -D ong's t houg ht of evaluati on has room for manoe uvre, through to t he ruli ng ide ology of Mao Zedong thoug ht, is the call of the soul to the S ociali st Revolution and constr ucti on. Empty talks j eopardize nat ional interests a nd try agai n, is an a ffirmation of Deng Xia o-ping' s reform ideas. These strong politica l signal showing a new generation of politi cal leader s is still kee ping to t he Socialist roa d. Four is revisiting the "talking t o Mao Ze -D ong's histori cal cy cle of" high profile anti -corruption a nd t he importa nce of the Constit ution, reorgani zation is ba d style of official dom, was t o civiliz e pe ople obey the law, w hile im proving t he color cha nge of the regime of vigilance. Five is to reform into deeper waters and stresse d that top-leve l desig n, thi s is a review on the reform and openi ng up in the past, is al so l ooki ng for a way out. Six foreign and Rus sia cl ose r, the flexible attitude on the iss ue of the Korea n pe ninsula, Si no -Japa nese fis hing har dli ne China on the i sland out of the "pat ient" and l ow profile sha dow began to gra dually plan development . Signs s how that t he ne w leaders hip began t o make a left turn in politics. Comrades : today brings t ogether member s, mainly in order to provi de a platform to Exchange a nd lear n from each other i n order t o facilitate our work. Just now, we focus on taxation, pla nni ng and stabilit y, safety, proje ct constr uction, typi cal topics such as private facts prese ntation and interacti on, and towns currently exist in the in -de pth a nalysis of the problems to be s olved, to ex plore new methods t o solve t he pr oblem. It can be sai d that summing up t he achievement, no grandstanding ; analy sis However, as of right now, not only ide ologi cal confusi on i n the community, the new lea ders hip's t hinki ng is mess y. Ne w leader s bot h stresse d the ne ed to impleme nt the Constit ution, stresse d the need t o turn off the power i n a cage . Also stre sses t hat Mao Ze dong thought ca nnot be l ost, 30 years after the reform and openi ng u p 30 years ag o can not deny ea ch ot her. Bot h advocate dem ocra cy and rel ease "seve n does not spe ak of" files of polit ical constraint s. Neit her de ny the history of the CPC Central Committee on several iss ues . ..

promotion of empl oyment, form a reasona ble a nd or derly patter n of income di stribution, build a m ore fair and sustai nable soci al se curity system s, medical and healt h system reform. The ple nary, i nnovation of social gover nance, must focus on the mainte nance of fundame ntal interests of the ove rwhelming maj ority of the people, maximize factors, enhance s ocial development, im proving social gover nance, the i nterests of national se curity, ensure that t he pe opl e live and work, social stability and order. To improve social governance, stimulati ng social organizati on, i nnovative and e ffective system of preventing a nd res olving so cial conflicts , improvi ng the publ ic se curity sy stem, set up the National Security Council, national se curity systems a nd national se curity strategy to e ns ure nati onal s ecurity. Plenary sessi on, the constructi on of ecol ogica l civiliz ation, you m ust establi sh systems of ecological system, using th e system to pr otect the ecological environment. To improve natural re sources a sset pr operty right system and use control, red li ne of delimitation of ecological prote ction, res ource s pai d use system and ecologi cal compe nsati on system i n ecologi cal envi ronment pr otecti on management system reform. Ple nary se ssi on, centeri ng on buildi ng a listeni ng party command, ca n win a nd having a f ine style of the pe ople' s army, a strong army under t he ne w situati on of the party Goal s, restricti ng the devel opment of national defense a nd army buil ding i s solve d outstanding contradicti ons and problems, innovation and deve lopme nt of military the ory, enhance military strategic g uida nce, improve t he military strategy in t he new period, buil ding a moder n military force system wit h C hine se characteri stics . To dee pen t he adj ustment of pers onnel system reform in t he army, military poli cy and system reform, pr omote the devel opme nt of military and civili an integrati on dept h. Pl enary se ssi on stre ssed t hat comprehensive reform must be to stre ngthe n and improve t he party's leadershi p, give full play to the core role of the party commands the overall situation a nd coor dinati ng all partie s, impr oving the party's lea ding w ater ... M argin. Challe nged t he lea ders hip of t he Communist Party of China, Marx ism-Le nini sm and Ma o Zedong thoug ht by De ng Xi ao -pi ng's flag, repl ace d by thr ee repre sentatives a nd t he harmoni c s ociet y. The former Communist Party s pirit and s ocial cohesi on poi nt of almost all political makeov er. Characteri stics of socialism public ownershi p is s hifting to private ow nershi p, planned reg ulation and market regulation, the pr oletarian regime controlle d by the elite. Of universa l equality, fair ness a nd basi c pri nci ples of distri buti on system i s socia list society, how ever after economic m onopolized by powerful, vested i nterests grow, empl oyers do not have the same status, hardly seems fair social di stri bution. State key protection of ca pital interests rat her tha n the interest s of citize ns, had been hits the bottom of the proletariat

3.“闭关锁国” : (1)原因:①清朝初年为了对付沿海人民的抗清斗争下令“禁海” ,实行“闭关锁国”政策。(2)表现: ①清朝设立四个港口做通商口岸,不久又禁止商人前往南洋贸易②乾隆帝时,开“十三行”③推行了近五十年。 (3)评价: ①阻碍国内工商业的发展和海外市场的开拓,抑制资本的原始积累②使中国与世隔绝,未能及时学习西方先进的科学技术, 以促进生产力的发展。这是导致资本主义萌芽发展缓慢的一个重要因素。

Obvi ousl y, face China's Socialist system, the Communist Party is not the party. In that case, politi cal chaos has been very t ig ht. Is remodeli ng or reconstr ucti on, i s a corre ction or a st ove. Whether t o turn rig ht or left, is ba ck to the so urce or put forwar d new politi cal idea s. 构 结 部 内 解 了 来 用 上 幕 屏 在 示 显 并 集 收 种 这 将 器 仪 过 们 人 同 相 不 回 生 产 会 就 碍 障 到 碰 果 如 体 物 透 穿 以 可 且 而 播 传 方 定 向 能 超 , 样 一 音 声 的 通 普 和

This is to determine the road problems in Chi na, is al so the key out of the dee p water of the reform of the e conomic system.

After 18, the new Central colle ctive leaders hip atta che s great importance to politic al orie ntation.

First, the "Central eight article s" as a starting point, starti ng from the Ce ntral G overnment's self -restraint, whi ch prea ches and pr o-image, broug ht fresh feeling to t he communit y.

Secondly, before reform and ope ning up a nd reform an d openi ng two periods after non-negative, untying the tangle of the society a long time on t his iss ue. T hird, a new ge neration of party l eaders on various occa sions to Ma o Ze-Dong and Mao Ze -D ong's t houg ht of evaluati on has room for manoe uvre, through to t he ruli ng ide ology of Mao Zedong thoug ht, is the call of the soul to the S ociali st Revolution and constr ucti on. Empty talks j eopardize national interests a nd try agai n, is an a ffirmation of Deng Xia o-ping' s reform ideas.

These strong politica l signal sh owing a new generation of politi cal leader s is still kee ping to t he Socialist roa d.

Four

is revisiting the "talking t o Mao Ze -D ong's histori cal cy cle of" high profile anti -corruption a nd t he importa nce of the Constit ution, reorgani zation is ba d style of official dom, was t o civiliz e pe ople obey the law, w hile im proving t he color cha nge of the regime of vigilance. Five is to reform into deeper waters and stresse d that top-leve l desig n, thi s is a review on the reform and openi ng up in the past, is al so l ooki ng for a way out. Six foreign and Rus sia cl ose r, the flexible attitude on the iss ue of the Korea n pe ninsula, Si no -Japa nese fis hing har dli ne China on the i sland out of the "pat ient" and l ow profile sha dow began to gra dually plan development . Signs s how that t he ne w leaders hip began t o make a left turn in politics. Comrades : today brings t ogether member s, mainly in order to provi de a platform to Exchange a nd lear n from each other i n order t o facilitate our work. Just now, we focus on taxation, pla nni ng and stabilit y, safety, proje ct constr uction, typi cal topics such as private facts prese ntation and interacti on, and towns currently exist in the in -de pth a nalysis of the problems to be s olved, to ex plore new methods t o solve t he pr oblem. It can be sai d that summing up t he achievement, no grandstanding ; analy sis

However, as of right now, not only ide ologi cal confusi on i n the community, the new lea ders hip's t hinki ng is mess y. Ne w leader s bot h stresse d the ne ed to impleme nt the Constit ution, stresse d the need t o turn off the power i n a cage . Also stre sses t hat Mao Ze dong thought ca nnot be l ost, 30 years after the reform and openi ng up 30 years ag o can not deny ea ch ot her. Bot h advocate dem ocra cy and rel ease "seve n does not spe ak of" files of polit ical constraint s. Neit her de ny the history of the CPC Central Committee on several iss ues . ..



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