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测量误差与不确定度评定

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the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cr e dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing plat form; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re searc h, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

测量误差与不确定度评定
一、 测量误差 1、 测量误差和相对误差 (1) 、测量误差 测量结果减去被测量的真值所得的差,称为测量误差,简称误差。 这个定义从 20 世纪 70 年代以来没有发生过变化, 以公式可表示为: 测量误差=测量结果-真值。测量结果是由测量所得到的赋予被测量的 值,是客观存在的量的实验表现,仅是对测量所得被测量之值的近似或 估计,显然它是人们认识的结果,不仅与量的本身有关,而且与测量程 序、测量仪器、测量环境以及测量人员等有关。真值是量的定义的完整 体现,是与给定的特定量的定义完全一致的值,它是通过完善的或完美 无缺的测量,才能获得的值。所以,真值反映了人们力求接近的理想目 标或客观真理,本质上是不能确定的,量子效应排除了唯一真值的存在, 实际上用的是约定真值,须以测量不确定度来表征其所处的范围。因而, 作为测量结果与真值之差的测量误差,也是无法准确得到或确切获知的。 过去人们有时会误用误差一词,即通过误差分析给出的往往是被测 量值不能确定的范围,而不是真正的误差值。误差与测量结果有关,即 不同的测量结果有不同的误差,合理赋予的被测量之值各有其误差并不 存在一个共同的误差。一个测量结果的误差,若不是正值(正误差)就 是负值(负误差) ,它取决于这个结果是大于还是小于真值。实际上,误 差可表示为: 误差=测量结果-真值=(测量结果-总体均值)+(总体均值-真值)

streamlining. Four are sta ndard vi sits, exce pt as required t o partici pate in trai ning, no ot her a ctivity. Five i s to improve news re porti ng, for pr opaganda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons. Six is strictly y our pre sentati on publi she d strictly a ccordi ng to the reg ulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发

Seven is strictly thrift, required the us e of vehicles and office spa ce and corporate hospitality. 3, change t he style.

Propaganda a nd i deological work of the new situation and ne w requirements of the new ta sks, ha d done a l ot of fruitful work, has made many achievements , but furt her cl oser t o the grass r oots , clos e to reality, close to the masses a nd a lso i nade quate i nnovation must continue to im prove. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome out standi ng iss ues 1, oppose formalism. One t heory i s that he didn't, with le ss cl ose contact. T heoreti cal study of consci ous nes s is not high enough, system performance is not strong enoug h; more passive l earni ng, active l earni ng few generalities a nd le arn more, delving i nto les s. Es pe cially bas ed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory t o guide the w ork done is not good e nough, not really understand

and gras p the s pirit and es sence of the scie ntific Outlook on devel opme nt, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the development and impleme ntation of ideas a nd i nitiatives. Se cond, w ork arrangeme nts, a nd les s supervis ion. Propaganda and ideol ogical w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts depl oyed, but stres sed i n the w ork time, less supervisi on. F or example, color w eekends in t he s ummer theatrical a ctivities, city square performances, urgi ng tow nshi ps, communities a nd rural are as s how s the impl ementation is ina de quate, i nsuffi cient cultural a n educat i onal r ole to pla y. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Propaga nda a nd i deological work i n the new sit uation of chara cteristics and regularity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opi nion Dynami cs s urvey, for gras s-r oots typi cally driv e less. F or example, rural culture team a ctive, ... I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, the la ck of spirit of daring to, resulti ng in s ome job ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngibl e result s. Thir d, innovati on, la ck of motivation. Emancipati on di d not end, innovati on does not exist. In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork is not much, an d s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

=随机误差+系统误差 (2) 、相对误差 测量误差除以被测量的真值所得的商,称为相对误差。 2、 随机误差和系统误差 (1) 、随机误差 测量结果与重复性条件下,对同一被测量进行无限多次测量所得结 果的平均值之差,称为随机误差。 随机误差=测量结果-多次测量的算术平均值(总体均值) 重复性条件是指在尽量相同的条件下,包括测量程序、人员、仪器、 环境等,以及尽量短的时间间隔内完成重复测量任务。 此前,随机误差曾被定义为:在同一量的多次测量过程中,以不可 预知方式变化的测量误差的分量。 随机误差的统计规律性: 1 对称性:绝对值相等而符号相反的误差,出现的次数大致相等, ○ 也即测得值是以它们的算术平均值为中心而对称分布的。由于所有误差 的代数和趋于零,故随机误差又具有低偿性,这个统计特性是最为本质 的;换言之,凡具有低偿性的误差,原则上均可按随机误差处理。 2 有界性:测得值误差的绝对值不会超过一定的界限,也即不会出 ○ 现绝对值很大的误差。 3 单峰性:绝对值小的误差比绝对值大的误差数目多,也即测得值 ○ 是以它们的算术平均值为中心而相对集中地分布的。 (2) 、系统误差
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

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the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

在重复性条件下,对同一被测量进行无限多次测量所得结果的平均 值与被测量的真值之差,称为系统误差。它是测量结果中期望不为零的 误差分量。 系统误差=多次测量的算术平均值-被测量真值 由于只能进行有限次数的重复测量,真值也只能用约定真值代替, 因此可能确定的系统误差只是其估计值,并具有一定的不确定度。 系统误差大抵来源于影响量,它对测量结果的影响若已识别并可定 量表述,则称之为“系统效应” 。该效应的大小若是显著的,则可通过估 计的修正值予以补偿。但是,用以估计的修正值均由测量获得,本身就 是不确定的。 至于误差限、最大允许误差、可能误差、引用误差等,它们的前面 带有正负(±)号,因而是一种可能误差区间,并不是某个测量结果的 误差。对于测量仪器而言,其示值的系统误差称为测量仪器的“偏移” , 通常用适当次数重复测量示值误差的均值来估计。 过去所谓的误差传播定律,所传播的其实并不是误差而是不确定度, 故现已改称为不确定度传播定律。还要指出的是:误差一词应按其定义 使用,不宜用它来定量表明测量结果的可靠程度。 3、修正值和偏差 (1) 、修正值和修正因子 用代数方法与未修正测量结果相加,以补偿其系统误差的值,称为 修正值。 含有误差的测量结果,加上修正值后就可能补偿或减少误差的影响。
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

3

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

由于系统误差不能完全获知,因此这种补偿并不完全。修正值等于负的 系统误差,这就是说加上某个修正值就像扣掉某个系统误差,其效果是 一样的,只是人们考虑问题的出发点不同而已,即 真值=测量结果+修正值=测量结果-误差 在量值溯源和量值传递中,常常采用这种加修正值的直观的办法。用 高一个等级的计量标准来校准或检定测量仪器,其主要内容之一就是要 获得准确的修正值。换言之,系统误差可以用适当的修正值来估计并予 以补偿。但应强调指出:这种补偿是不完全的,也即修正值本身就含有 不确定度。当测量结果以代数和方式与修正值相加后,其系统误差之模 会比修正前的小,但不可能为零,也即修正值只能对系统误差进行有限 程度的补偿。 修正因子:为补偿系统误差而与未修正测量结果相乘的数字因子, 称为修正因子。 含有系统误差的测量结果,乘以修正因子后就可以补偿或减少误差的 影响。但是,由于系统误差并不能完全获知,因而这种补偿是不完全的, 也即修正因子本身仍含有不确定度。通过修正因子或修正值已进行了修 正的测量结果,即使具有较大的不确定度,但可能仍然十分接近被测量 的真值(即误差甚小) 。因此,不应把测量不确定度与已修正测量结果的 误差相混淆。
(2) 、偏差:一个值减去其参考值,称为偏差。

这里的值或一个值是指测量得到的值,参考值是指设定值、应有值 或标称值。
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

4

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

例如:尺寸偏差=实际尺寸-应有参考尺寸 偏差=实际值-标称值 在此可见,偏差与修正值相等,或与误差等值而反向。应强调指出的 是:偏差相对于实际值而言,修正值与误差则相对于标称值而言,它们 所指的对象不同。所以在分析时,首先要分清所研究的对象是什么。 常见的概念还有上偏差 (最大极限尺寸与参考尺寸之差) 、 下偏差 (最 小极限尺寸与参考尺寸之差) ,它们统称为极限偏差。由代表上、下偏差 的两条直线所确定的区域,即限制尺寸变动量的区域,统称为尺寸公差 带。 二、 测量不确定度的评定与表示 1、 测量不确定度 表征合理地赋予被测量之值的分散性、与测量结果相联系的参数, 称为测量不确定度。 “合理”意指应考虑到各种因素对测量的影响所做的修正,特别是 测量应处于统计控制的状态下,即处于随机控制过程中。 “相联系”意指 测量不确定度是一个与测量结果“在一起”的参数,在测量结果的完整 表示中应包括测量不确定度。此参数可以是诸如标准 [偏]差或其倍数, 或说明了置信水准的区间的半宽度。 测量不确定度从词意上理解,意味着对测量结果可信性、有效性的 怀疑程度或不肯定程度,是定量说明测量结果的质量的一个参数。实际 上由于测量不完善和人们的认识不足,所得的被测量值具有分散性,即 每次测得的结果不是同一值,而是以一定的概率分散在某个区域内的许
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

5

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

多个值。虽然客观存在的系统误差是一个不变值,但由于我们不能完全 认知或掌握,只能认为它是以某种概率分布存在于某个区域内,而这种 概率分布本身也具有分散性。测量不确定度就是说明被测量之值分散性 的参数,它不说明测量结果是否接近真值。 为了表征这种分散性,测量不确定度用标准[偏]差表示。在实际使 用中,往往希望知道测量结果的置信区间,因此规定测量不确定度也可 用标准[偏]差的倍数或说明了置信水准的区间的半宽度表示。为了区分 这两种不同的表示方法,分别称它们为标准不确定度和扩展不确定度。 (1)测量不确定度来源 在实践中,测量不确定度可能来源于以下十个方面: 1 对被测量的定义不完整或不完善; ○ 2 实现被测量的定义的方法不理想; ○ 3 取样的代表性不够,即被测量的样本不能代表所定义的被测量; ○ 4 对测量过程受环境影响的认识不周全,或对环境条件的测量与控制不 ○ 完善;
5 对模拟仪器的读数存在人为偏移; ○ 6 测量仪器的分辩力或鉴别力不够; ○ 7 赋予计量标准的值或标准物质的值不准; ○ 8 引用于数据计算的常量和其它参量不准; ○ 9 测量方法和测量程序的近似性和假定性; ○ 10 在表面上看来完全相同的条件下,被测量重复观测值的变化。 ○

由此可见,测量不确定度一般来源于随机性和模糊性,前者归因于条
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

6

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

件不充分,后者归因于事物本身概念不明确。这就使测量不确定度一般 由许多分量组成,其中一些分量可以用测量列结果(观测值)的统计分 布来进行评价,并且以实验标准[偏]差表征;而另一些分量可以用其它 方法(根据经验或其它信息的假定概率分布)来进行评价,并且也以标 准[偏]差表征。所有这些分量,应理解为都贡献给了分散性。若需要表 示某分量是由某原因导致时,可以用随机效应导致的不确定度和系统效 应导致的不确定度。 (2)标准不确定度和标准[偏]差 以标准[偏]差表示的测量不确定度,称为标准不确定度。 标准不确定度用符号 u 表示,它不是由测量标准引起的不确定度, 而是指不确定度以标准[偏]差表示,来表征被测量之值的分散性。这种 分散性可以有不同的表示方式,例如:用 残差可能相消,反映不出分散程度;用

?? ?
xi ? x i ?1 n xi ? x n

n

表示时,由于正残差与负

?
i ?1

n

表示时,则不便于进行解析

运算。只有用标准[偏]差表示的测量结果的不确定度,才称为标准不确 定度。 当对同一被测量作 n 次测量,表征测量结果分散性的量 s 按下式算 出时,称它为实验标准[偏]差: S=

?? ?
x?x i ?1 n ?1

n

2

式中: xi 为第 i 次测量的结果;

x 为所考虑的 n 次测量结果的算术平均值。
对同一被测量作有限的 n 次测量,其中任何一次的测量结果或观测
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not exist. In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

7

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

值,都可视作无穷多次测量结果或总体的一个样本。数理统计方法就是 要通过这个样本所获得的信息(例如算术平均值 x 和实验标准[偏]差 s 等) ,来推断总体的性质(例如期望 ? 和方差σ 等) 。期望是通过无穷多 次测量所得的观测值的算术平均值或加权平均值,又称为总体均值 ? , 显然它只是在理论上存在并表示为
1 ? = lim x n?? n ? i
i ?1 n

2

方差σ 则是无穷多次测量所得观测值 xi 与期望 ? 之差的平方的算术 平均值,它也只是在理论上存在并可表示为
?xi ? ? ?2 ] σ = lim [1 n?? n ?
i ?1

2

2

n

方差的正平方根σ ,通常被称为标准[偏]差,又称为总体标准[偏] 差或理论标准[偏]差;而通过有限多次测量得的实验标准[偏]差 s,又称 为样本标准[偏]差。这个计算公式即为贝赛尔公式,算得的 s 是σ 的估 计值。 s 是单次观测值 xi 的实验标准[偏]差, s/ n 才是 n 次测量所得算术平 均值 x 的实验标准[偏]差,它是 x 分布的标准[偏]差的估计值。为易于区 别,前者用 s(x)表示,后者用 s( x )表示,故有 s( x )=s(x)/ n 。 通常用 s(x)表征测量仪器的重复性,而用 s( x )评价以此仪器进行 n 次测量所得测量结果的分散性。随着测量次数 n 的增加,测量结果的分 散性 s( x )即与 n 成反比地减小,这是由于对多次观测值取平均后,正、 负误差相互抵偿所致。 所以, 当测量要求较高或希望测量结果的标准[偏] 差较小时,应适当增加 n;但当 n>20 时,随着 n 的增加,s( x )的减小速
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

8

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

率减慢。因此,在选取 n 的多少时应予综合考虑或权衡利弊,因为增加 测量次数就会拉长测量时间、加大测量成本。在通常情况下,取 n≥3, 以 n =4~20 为宜。另外,应当强调 s( x )是平均值的实验标准[偏]差,而 不能称它为平均值的标准误差。 2.不确定度的 A 类、B 类评定及合成 由于测量结果的不确定度往往由许多原因引起,对每个不确定度来 源评定的标准[偏]差,称为标准不确定度分量,用符号 u i 表示。对这些 标准不确定度分量有两类评定方法,即 A 类评定和 B 类评定。 (1) 不确定度的 A 类评定 用对观测列进行统计分析的方法来评定标准不确定度,称为不确定 度的 A 类评定,有时也称 A 类不确定度评定。 通过统计分析观测列的方法,对标准不确定度的进行的评定,所得 到的相应标准不确定度称为 A 类不确定度分量,用符号 uA 表示。 这里的统计分析方法,是指根据随机取出的测量样本中所获得的信 息,来推断关于总体性质的方法。例如:在重复性条件或复现性条件下 的任何一个测量结果,可以看作是无限多次测量结果(总体)的一个样 本,通过有限次数的测量结果(有限的随机样本)所获得的信息(诸如 平均值 x 、实验标准差 s) ,来推断总体的平均值(即总体均值 ? 或分布 的期望值)以及总体标准 [ 偏]差σ ,就是所谓的统计分析方法之一。 A 类标准不确定度用实验标准[偏]差表征。 (2) 不确定度的 B 类评定 用不同于对观测列进行统计分析的方法来评定标准不确定度,称为
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

9

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

不确定度的 B 类评定,有时也称 B 类不确定度评定。 这是用不同于对测量样本统计分析的其他方法,进行的标准不确定 度的评定,所得到的相应的标准不确定度称为 B 类标准不确定度分量, 用符号 uB 表示。它用根据经验或资料及假设的概率分布估计的标准[偏] 差表征,也就是说其原始数据并非来自观测列的数据处理,而是基于实 验或其他信息来估计,含有主观鉴别的成分。用于不确定度 B 类评定的 信息来源一般有: ①以前的观测数据; ②对有关技术资料和测量仪器特性的了解和经验; ③生产部门提供的技术说明文件; ④校准证书、检定证书或其他文件提供的数据、准确度的等别或级 别,包括目前仍在使用的极限误差、最大允许误差等; ⑤手册或某些资料给出的参考数据及其不确定度; ⑥规定实验方法的国家标准或类似技术文件中给出的重复性限 r 或 复现性限 R。 不确定度的 A 类评定由观测列统计结果的统计分布来估计,其分布 来自观测列的数据处理,具有客观性和统计学的严格性。这两类标准不 确定度仅是估算方法不同,不存在本质差异,它们都是基于统计规律的 概率分布,都可用标准[偏]差来定量表达,合成时同等对待。只不过 A 类是通过一组与观测得到的频率分布近似的概率密度函数求得。而 B 类 是由基于事件发生的信任度(主观概率或称为经验概率)的假定概率密 度函数求得。对某一项不确定度分量究竟用 A 类方法评定,还是用 B 类
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

10

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

方法评定,应由测量人员根据具体情况选择。特别应当指出:A 类、B 类 与随机、系统在性质上并无对应关系,为避免混淆,不应再使用随机不 确定度和系统不确定度。 (3) 合成标准不确定度 当测量结果是由若干个其他量的值求得时,按其他各量的方差和协 方差算得的标准不确定度,称为合成标准不确定度。 在测量结果是由若干个其他量求得的情形下,测量结果的标准不确 定度,等于这些其他量的方差和协方差适当和的正平方根,它被称为合 成标准不确定度。合成标准不确定度是测量结果标准 [偏]差的估计值, 用符号 uc 表示。 方差是标准[偏]差的平方,协方差是相关性导致的方差。当两个被 测量的估计值具有相同的不确定度来源,特别是受到相同的系统效应的 影响(例如:使用了同一台标准器)时,它们之间即存在着相关性。如 果两个都偏大或都偏小,称为正相关;如果一个偏大而另一个偏小,则 称为负相关。由这种相关性所导致的方差,即为协方差。显然,计入协 方差会扩大合成标准不确定度,协方差的计算既有属于 A 类评定的、也 有属于 B 类评定的。人们往往通过改变测量程序来避免发生相关性,或 者使协方差减小到可以略计的程序,例如:通过改变所使用的同一台标 准等。如果两个随机变量是独立的,则它们的协方差和相关系数等于零, 但反之不一定成立。 合成标准不确定度仍然是标准[偏]差,它表征了测量结果的分散性。 所用的合成的方法,常被称为不确定度传播律,而传播系数又被称为灵
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

11

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

敏系数,用 ci 表示。合成标准不确定度的自由度称为有效自由度,用 νeff 表示,它表明所评定的 uc 的可靠程度。通常在报告以下测量结果时, 可直接使用合成标准不确定度 uc(y),同时给出自由度 νeff: ①基础计量学研究; ②基本物理常量测量; ③复现国际单位制单位的国际比对。 3.扩展不确定度和包含因子 (1)扩展不确定度 扩展不确定度是确定测量结果区间的量,合理赋予被测量之值分布 的大部分可望含于此区间。它有时也被称为展伸不确定度或范围不确定 度。 实际上扩展不确定度是由合成标准不确定度的倍数表示的测量不确 定度,通宵用符号 U 表示。它是将合成标准不确定度扩展了 k 倍得到的, 即 U=kuc,这里 k 值一般为 2,有时为 3,取决于被测量的重要性、效益 和风险。 扩展不确定度是测量结果的取值区间的半宽度,可期望该区间包含 了被测量之值分布的大部分。而测量结果的取值区间在被测量值概率分 布中所包含的百分数,被称为该区间的置信概率、置信水准或置信水平, 用符号 p 表示。这时扩展不确定度用符号 Up 表示,它给出的区间能包含 被测量可能值的大部分(比如 95%或 99%等) 。 按测量不确定度的定义,合理赋予的被测量之值的分散区间理应包 含全部的测得值,即 100%地包含于区间内,此区间的半宽通常用符号 a
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

12

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

表示。若要求其中包含 95%的被测量之值,则此区间称为概率为 p=95%的 置信区间,其半宽就是扩展不确定度 U95;类似地,若要求 99%的概率, 则半宽为 U99。这个与置信概率区间或统计包含区间有关的概率,即为上 述的置信概率。显然,在上面例举的三个半宽之间存在着 U95<U99<a 的 关系,至于具体小多少或大多少,还与赋予被测量之值的分布情况有关。 归纳上述内容,可将测量不确定度的分类简示为: 测量不确定度: 标准不确定度:A 类标准不确定度 B 类标准不确定度 合成标准不确定度 扩展不确定度:U(k=2,3) Up(p 为置信概率) 值得指出的是:在 20 世纪 80 年代曾用术语总不确定度,由于在报 告最终测量结果时既可用扩展不确定度也可用合成标准不确定度,为避 免混淆,目前在定量表示时一般不再使用总不确定度这个术语。 (2)包含因子和自由度 为求得扩展不确定度,对合成标准不确定度所乘之数字因子,称为 包含因子,有时也称为覆盖因子。 包含因子的取值决定了扩展不确定度的置信水平。鉴于扩展不确定 度有 U 与 Up 两种表示方式,它们在称呼上并无区别,但在使用时 k 一般 为 2 或 3,而 kp 则为给定置信概率 p 所要求的数字因子。在被测量估计 值拉近于正态分布的情况下,kp 就是 t 分布(学生分布)中的 t 值。评定 扩展不确定度 Up 时,已知 p 与自由度 ν,即可查表得到 kp,进而求得 Up。
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not exist. In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

13

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

参见 JJF1059-1999《测量不确定度评定与表示》的附录 A: “t 分布在不 同置信概率 p 与自由度 ν 的 tp(ν)值”。 自由度一词,在不同领域有不同的含义。这里对被测量若只观测一 次,有一个观测值,则不存在选择的余地,即自由度为 0。若有两个观测 值,显然就多了一个选择。换言之,本来观测一次即可获得被测量值, 但人们为了提高测量的质量(品质)或可信度而观测 n 次,其中多测的 (n-1) 次实际上是由测量人员根据需要自由选定的, 故称之为 “自由度” 。 在 A 类标准不确定度评定中,自由度用于表明所得的标准[偏]差的 可靠程度。它被定义为“在方差计算中,和的项数减去对和的限制数” 。 按贝塞尔公式计算时,取和符号∑后的项数等于 n,而 n 个观测值与其平 均值 x 之差(残差)的和显然为零,即∑(xi- x )=0。这就是一个限制条件, 即限制数为 1,故自由度 ν=n-1。通常,自由度等于测量次数 n 减去被测 量的个数 m,即 ν=n-m。实际上,自由度往往用于求包含因子 kp,如果只 评定 U 而不是 Up,则不必计算自由度及有效自由度。 4.测量不确定度的评定和报告 (1)测量不确定度的评定流程 下图简示了测量不确定度评定的全部流程。在标准不确定度分量评 定环节中,JJF1059-1999 建议列表说明,即列出标准不确定度一览表, 以便一目了然。

streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发

Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e.

Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd

and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

14

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

开始

规定被测量

第一步

识别不确定度来源

第二步

将现有数据的不确定度 来源分组以简化评估 第三步

量化分组分量

量化其他分量

将分量转换为标准偏差

计算合成不确定度

审定、如必要,重新评 估较大的分量

第四步

结束

计算扩展不确定度

streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发

Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e.

Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd

and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

15

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

下图简示了扩展不确定度评定的流程。
开始

取出合成标准不确定度 uc(y)

当根据中心极限定律 uc(y)可能接近正态分 布时,可按 Up 给出

无必要给出 Up 值

选定包含因子 k 一般为 2~3 计算有效自由度 ν=uc /
4

当可以估计 uc(y)接近某 种分布时, 乘以下列包含 因子 kp 可得 U99: 均匀分布 k= 3 两点分布 k=1 三角分布 k= 6 反正弦分布 k=
2

??

ui4 i

计算 U=k uc(y) 给出 U ,p=0.99

选定要求的置信水准 p 一般取 0.95,0.99

给出 U ,指明 k

按 νeef 和 p 查 t 分布临 界值 tp(v) , 包含因子 kp=tp(v)

计算 Up=kp uc(y)

给出 Up ,p 值





当以 U 报告最终测量结果时,可采用以下两种形式之一,但均须指 明 k 值。 例如:uc(y)=0.35mg,取包含因子 k=2,U=2× 0.35mg=0.70mg,则

(a)

m=100.02147g,U=0.70mg;k=2
Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd

streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发

and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

16

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

(b)

m=(100.02147±0.00070)g;k=2

当以 Up 报告最终测量结果时,可采用以下四种形式之一,但均须指 明有效自由度 veef 。 例如:uc(y)=0.35mg,veef=9,按 p=95%,查 JJF1059-1999《测量不 确定度评定与表示》的附录 A 表得 kp=t95(9)=2.26; U95=2.26× 0.35mg=0.79mg,则

(a) (b)

m=100.02147g;U95=0.79mg,veef=9。 m=100.02147(79)g;veef=9,括号内为 U95 之值,其末位 与前面结果内末位数对齐。

(c)

m=100.02147(0.00079)g;veef=9,括号内为 U95 之值,与 前面结果有相同计量单位。

(d)

m=(100.02147±0.00079)g;veef=9,括号内第二项为 U95 之值。

为明确起见,建议用以下方式说明: “式中,正负号后的值为扩展不 确定度 U95=k95 uc(m),而合成标准不确定度 uc(m)=0.35mg,自由度 veef=9, 包含因子 kp=t95(9)=2.26, 从而具有约 95%概率的置信区间” 。 报告最终测量结果时,应注意有效位数:通常 uc(y)和 U(或 Up) 最多取 2 位有效数字,且 y 与 y c(y)或 U(或 Up)的修约间隔应相 同。不确定度也可以相对形式 urel(y)或 Urel 报告。 三、 测量误差与测量不确定度 归纳上述内容,可将测量误差与测量不确定度之间存在的主要区别 列于下表
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

17

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

测量误差与测量不确定度的主要区别 序号 内
1 2



测 量 误 差

测 量 不 确 定 度

定义的 要点 类

表明测量结果偏离真值, 表明赋予被测量之值的分散性, 是一个差值 是一个区间

分 量 的 分 按出现于测量结果中的规 按是否用统计方法求得, 分为 A 律,分为随机和系统,都 类和 B 类,都是标准不确定度 是无限多次测量时的理想 化概念

3 4 5 6

可操作性

由于真值未知,只能通过 按实验、资料、经验评定,实验 约定真值求得其估计值 方差是总体方差的无偏估计 平方根 当各分量彼此独立时为方和根, 必要时加入协方差 时,可以对测量结果进行 正, 在已修正结果的不确定度中 修正,得到已修正的测量 应考虑修正不完善引入的分量 结果

表 示 的 符 非 正 即 负 , 不 要 用 正 负 为正值, 当由方差求得时取其正 号 法 正 (±)号表示 合 成 的 方 为各误差分量的代数和

结 果 的 修 已 知 系 统 误 差 的 估 计 值 不能用不确定度对结果进行修

7

结 果 的 说 属于给定的测量结果,只 合理赋予被测量的任一个值, 均 明 有相同的结果才有相同的 具有相同的分散性 误差

8

实 验 标 准 来源于给定的测量结果, 来源于合理赋予的被测量之值, [偏] 差 不表示被测量值估计的随 表示同一观测列中任一个估计 机误差 值的标准不确定度

9 10

自由度

不存在

可作为不确定度评定是否可 靠的指标 当了解分布时, 可按置信概率 给出置信区间

置信概率 不存在

streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发

Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e.

Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd

and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

18

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

常用玻璃量器比对测量结果不确定度评定
一、 目的 用衡量法检定 10 ml 分度吸管。 二、 检定步骤 取容量 50 ml 的洁净量瓶,在电子天平上称量,去皮重(清零) ,用 被检定的 10 ml 分度吸管分别加入总容量的 1/10、半容量和总容量的纯 水(自流液口起) ,天平显示的数值即为被检容量的质量值(m0) ,称完后 将数字温度计直接插入瓶内测温,然后在 JJG196-90 衡量法用表(二) 中查得质量值(m) ,根据公式计算标准温度 20℃时的实际容量。 三、 被测量 V20——标准温度 20℃时量器的实际容量(ml) 量器在标准温度 20℃时的实际容量计算公式: V20=V0+(m0-m)/ρw 式中:V20——量器在标准温度 20℃时的实际容量(ml) ; V0——量器的标称容量(ml) ; m0——称得的纯水质量值(g) ; m——衡量法用表(二)中查得的质量值(g) ; ρw——t℃时纯水密度值,近似为 1(g/ml) 。 四、 不确定度来源的识别 根据被测量的计算公式可了解到,对被测量及其不确定度的影响主 要有以下四个因素: 1、 V20 重复性不确定度 uv 20 2、 m0 测量不确定度 um 0(其中含检定用电子天平的最大允许误差
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not exist. In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

19

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

um 0 1 和弯液面调定读数误差引起的不确定度 um 0 2) 3、 数字温度测量误差导致 m 值的不确定度 um 五、 不确定度分量的量化
1、

V20 重复性不确定度分量 uv 20

本次比对试验样本为 10 ml 分度吸管,按 JJG196-90 检定规程要求, 需对总容量的 1/10、半容量和总容量进行测量。两天每个检定点重复测 量 6 次,测量结果如下: 量器编号 40-31 检定日期 2004.12.11 2004.12.12 2004.12.11 2004.12.12 2004.12.11 2004.12.12 检定点(ml)平均实际容量(ml) n 次 0~1 0~1 0~5 0~5 0~10 0~10 1.003 7 1.003 9 5.012 0 5.012 4 9.999 7 9.997 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 s(ml) 0.005 3 0.006 8 0.005 2 0.002 7 0.004 2 0.004 4

2、m0 测量不确定度 um 0 1 电子天平经检定给出的最大允差引起的不确定度 um 0 1 ○ 从检定证书得知,AG204 电子天平称量最大允许误差为 0.2mg,因 没有给定置信水平,有理由认为可能是极限值,通常假定其为矩形分布, k= 3 将其最大允许误差转化为标准不确定度 um 0 1,则 um 0 1=0.2mg/ 3 = 0.12mg 转化容积为:um 0 1=1.2×10 ml。 2 弯液面调定读数误差引起的不确定度 um 0 2 ○ 10ml 分度吸管其最小分度值为 0.1ml, 按分度值的 1/5 来估计读数的 分辨率为:0.1ml×1/5=0.02ml,其估计值是以最大区间形式作出并具有
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not exist. In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

-4

20

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

对称分布,服从三角分布,包含因子 k= 6 ,故 um 0 2=0.02/ 6 =0.008 ml 则 um 0 =(u2m 0 1+u2m 0 2)1/2=[ (1.2×10 ) +0.008 ]1/2=0.008 ml
-4 2 2

3、数字温度测量误差产生 m 值的不确定度 um 根据 WMY-01 型数字温度计的技术指标要求,0~50℃的温度允许 误差为:±0.3℃。 1 测量 1ml 水 的质量时,当用数字温度计测得水温为 18.9℃,查 ○ JJG196-90 衡量法用表(二)得该温度对应的水的质量值为 0.997 34g, 考虑+0.3℃的影响时,温度为 19.2℃,对应水的质量值为 0.997 29g; 考虑-0.3℃的影响时,温度为 18.6℃,对应水的质量值为 0.997 39g。 由此可知:温度测量误差带来的查表所得水的质量值的误差限有 -0.000 05g ~0.000 05g,其分散区间半宽度为 0.000 05g,服从正态分 布,取包含因子 k=3,其不确定度 um1=0.000 05/3=0.000 02g,转化为 以容积计为:um1=0.000 02ml。 2 测量 5 ml 水 的质量时,当用数字温度计测得水温为 19.2℃,查 ○ JJG196-90 衡量法用表(二)得该温度对应的水的质量值为 4.986 5g, 考虑+0.3℃的影响时,温度为 19.5℃,对应水的质量值为 4.986 2g; 考虑-0.3℃的影响时,温度为 18.9℃,对应水的质量值为 4.986 7g。 由此可知:温度测量误差带来的查表所得水的质量值的误差限有 -0.000 2g ~0.000 3g,可估计其分散区间半宽度为 0.000 3g,服从正 态分布,取包含因子 k=3,其不确定度 um2=0.000 3/3=0.000 1g,转化 为以容积计为:um2=0.000 1ml。 3 测量 10 ml 水 的质量时,当用数字温度计测得水温为 19.4℃,查 ○
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e. Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not exist. In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

21

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of taxation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production compa ny, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, finan cial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and financing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environm ent. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, careful analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : fi rst, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the party, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementat ion of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

JJG196-90 衡量法用表(二)得该温度对应的水的质量值为 9.972 6g, 考虑+0.3℃的影响时,温度为 19.7℃,对应水的质量值为 9.972 0g; 考虑-0.3℃的影响时,温度为 19.1℃,对应水的质量值为 9.973 1g。 由此可知:温度测量误差带来的查表所得水的质量值的误差限有 -0.000 5g ~0.000 6g,可估计其分散区间半宽度为 0.000 6g,服从正 态分布,取包含因子 k=3,其不确定度 um3=0.000 6/3=0.000 2g,转化 为以容积计为:um3=0.000 2ml。 六、合成标准不确定度 uc uc=(u2v 20 +u2m 0 +u2m)1/2 从以上不确定度分量的量化的值可见,um 的影响很小可忽略不计。 故:uc=(u2v 20 +u2m 0 )1/2。 对量器号为 40-31 的分度吸管其三个点容量测量结果的不确定度分 别为: 0~1 ml 0~5 ml 0~10 ml uc=(u2v 20 +u2m 0 )1/2=(0.006 82+0.0082)1/2=0.011ml uc=(u2v 20 +u2m 0 )1/2=(0.005 22+0.0082)1/2=0.010ml uc=(u2v 20 +u2m 0 )1/2=(0.004 42+0.0082)1/2=0.009ml

七、扩展不确定度 U 根据 2004 年常用玻璃量器比对实验方案要求,扩展不确定度 (U, k=2) , 则比对测量结果扩展不确定度 U=k×uc=2×0.011=0.022 ml uc 取最大值为 0.011 ml。

八、比对结果报告 量器编号 40-31
streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he regulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发 exist.

检定点(ml) 0~1
Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e.

实际容量(ml) 1.010
22

Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning few generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd

and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity effor ts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, gri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogical a nd cultural w ork i s not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, online promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

the principl e of simplifie d EIA of constr ucti on pr oje cts in t he region. I n terms of land, linke d to the impl ementation of ur ban a nd r ural construction land increase a nd decrea se, re placeme nt indicator s for priority area s project. Charges , into the projects of water, ele ctricit y, admini strative charge s a nd preferenti al policie s. In t he area of t axation, and settled i n areas of i ndustry and its production company, withi n 5 years after the compl etion of fiscal ince ntives to e nterprise s. I n terms of financing, i ntegration of land, tax, financial and other resource s, and constr uct "Gover nment cre dit + busi ness cre dit" credit system, esta blis hment of marketization, commercializati on a nd modernization of the inve stment and f inancing platform; effective Ba nk-e nterpris e docki ng, encourages private capital i nto the Park, to raise i ndustry devel opme nt fund. 5, optimize the environment a nd s ervice i ndustries. To create "policy l owlands, Highla nds, integrity of servi ce la nd, development la nd" as the goal, to optimize t he area under devel opment environment. All a dministrative law e nforceme nt de partments to a ppoint a full -time pers onnel stati one d in areas de dicate d to coordinating a nd solvi ng problems as sociated with busine sses i n this sect or. Whe n there are s ubsta ntial iss ues , sect or leader s arranged t o pers onally i ntervene , in -pers on, i n-pers on pus h tangi ble area buil ding a gree n light, easy li ne. To further re duce and standardiz e admini st rative examination and approval items, sim plify examination a nd a ppr oval links, im prove efficie ncy; a ccordi ng to the .. . Since the e ducational pra ctice of the mass li ne of the part y, hims elf seriously i n the e ducation, pra ctical contr ol ce ntral " eight rule s" and opposing "the four wi nds" a nd practici ng "three S uns", a nd che ck the spirit of Jiao Yul u, ideol ogy, s oli cit opi nions base d on outstanding probl ems checke d s wing, caref ul analy sis a nd reflecti on. Will now che ck report is as fol lows : first, adherence to the party's political dis cipli ne, eig ht in the ce ntral provi sion, change t he style of the basic situati on of 1 , in complia nce with t he party's politi cal disci plines. Conscie ntiously abi de by the party's polit ical di sci pline, abi de by t he Constit ution and the r ules a nd reg ulations of the par ty, in the political, ide ologi cal and maintai n hig hly consi stent wit h the CPC Central Committee on the a ction, ther e is no violati on of the party's political dis cipli ne pr oblems . 2, i n the im plementation of the ce ntral aut horities of the eig ht provi sions. Im proving re search, improvi ng resear ch met hods, but there are less grass-r oots unit s, primary first-hand an i nade quate gra sp of the pr oblem, w hich is t o be strengthe ned i n the future. Se cond, construction, stri ctly in accordance wit h the pr ovisi ons t o streamline a nd impr ove the quality of meeting s of the Conference. T hird, streamlining file briefs, culture inv olves all a spe cts of propaganda and ide olog y, s ometimes due to the practi cal nee ds of inve ntion notifi cations, thi s area nee ds further

0~5 0~10 U=0.022 ml;k=2

5.014 9.996

streamlining. Four are standard vis its, exce pt as required to participate i n traini ng, no other a ctivity. F ive is to impr ove new s reporti ng, for pr opaga nda w ork strictly accor ding to t he reg ulati ons . Six is strictly your prese ntation publis hed stri ctly accor ding to the regulations. 罚 济 经 或 决 理 处 好 做 权 作 操 规 违 承 对 。 明 文 与 全 安 、 度 进 督 监 并 , 宜 事 关 有 的 中 工 施 调 协 责 负 专 定 指 人 包 发

Seven is strictly thrift, required the use of vehicle s and office s pace a nd cor porate hos pitality. 3, cha nge the styl e.

Propaganda and ide ologi cal work of the new situati on and ne w requirements of the new task s, ha d done a lot of fruitful work, ha s made many achieveme nts, but further cl oser t o the grass r oots, close t o reality, clos e to the mas ses and als o ina dequate innovation must conti nue t o improve. Se cond, t he "four winds" s ome outsta ndi ng iss ues 1 , oppose formalism. One the ory is that he di dn't, wit h less close contact . The oretical st udy of consci ousnes s is not high enough, system performance i s not strong enoug h; more passive lear ning , active lear ning fe w generalities and learn m ore, delvi ng into le ss. E spe cially ba sed on rational thi nking on major i ssue s, applying t heory to g uide t he work done is not good enoug h, not really understa nd

and gras p the s pirit and esse nce of the s cientific Outl ook on development, di d not truly achieve mastery, t o apply, to a certain exte nt, affect the devel opme nt and im plementati on of ide as and initiatives . Second, work arrang ements, a nd les s supervi sion. Propaganda and ide ologi cal w ork is the obj ective, whi ch nee ds to kee p the conti nuity efforts de ploye d, but stresse d in the work time, les s supervisi on. For example, color we ekends in t he summer theatrical a ctivities, city s quare performances, urging tow ns hips, communities a nd r ural areas s how s the impleme ntation is ina dequate, insufficient cult ural an e ducational role to play. T hird base e nough, master grass -les s real. Pr opaga nda a nd ideol ogical w ork in the new situation of characteristi cs a nd regul arity of enough, dee p enoug h for grass-r oots public opinion Dynamics surve y, for grass -roots typica lly drive les s. For example, r ural culture team active, . .. I'm not a ctively take the initiative t o take up, t he lack of spirit of dari ng to, res ulting in some j ob ha d a lot of powe r, but no ta ngible re sults . Third, innovation, lack of motivation. Ema ncipation did not e nd, i nnovati on does not

exist.

In practical work , not your hea d, previ ous work experience, la ck of innovation initiatives, study on the characteristi cs of pr opaganda and ideol ogical w ork under the new s ituation through, g ri p on grassroots ide ologi cal trends a nd change s are not dee p, to pr omote ne w initiatives a nd e xplore ne w methods of ideol ogi cal a nd cultural w ork is not much, and s ome lack of releva nce a nd timeli ness . 4, di sci pline, l oweri ng, and har d work are la cking. While worki ng and enter prising spirit dow n. No real sol ution to treat yours elf right, corre ctly treat past honors, their com place ncy, a nd w ork to see their scores more, le ss che cking his ow n s hortcomings, l ike to listen t o the prai se, satisfie d face, onlin e promoti on, there are typi cal, a nd la ck of high sta ndar ds a nd strict re quireme nts, the effect is real. Second hard drive les s. On hard a nd

23



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