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新概念英语第二册自学笔记1-11


新概念英语第二册自学笔记 1-11 课 Lesson 1
课文详注 Further notes on the text

theatre.上星期我去看戏 上星期我去看戏。 1.Last week I went to the theatre.上星期我去看戏。

(1)句首的"Last week"点明叙述的事情发生的时间是上星期。因此整篇课文的时态基本上应是过去时(包括过 去进行时),直接引语部分的时态除外。

(2)动词 go 的原义是离开一个地方去另一个地方,与介词 to 连用后,常加上主语所要去的目的地来代表主语的 动作目的。课文中 go to the theatre = go to the theatre to see a play,即去剧场看戏。类似的还有 go to the cinema = go to the cinema to see a film(去电影院看电影)。这种表达方式简明扼要。请注意在以下的短语中 名词前通常不加冠词:

go to school 上学

go to bed 上床,睡觉

go to church 上教堂,去做礼拜(cf.第 1 册第 68 课 at school, at church;第 1 册第 85 课 have been to sch ool/church)

seat,座位很好。 2.had a very good seat,座位很好。

seat 一般指戏院、汽车等配置的固定座位,也可以抽象地表示"座位"或"位子"的概念:

the front seat of a car 汽车的前座

Take a seat, please.请坐。

戏很有意思。 3.The play was very interesting. 戏很有意思。

interesting 属于现在分词形式的形容词,意思是"使人感兴趣"。

它通常与非人称主语连用或修饰某个事物:

This is an interesting book/idea.

这是一本有趣的书/一个令人感兴趣的主意。

坐在我的身后, 4.…were sitting behind me. They were talking loudly.……坐在我的身后,大声地说着话。 loudly.……坐在我的身后 大声地说着话。

这两句的时态为过去进行时。(cf.第 7 课语法)

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我非常生气。 5.I got very angry. 我非常生气。

get 在这里有"逐渐变得"的含义,接近 become,是个表示过程的动词,表示状态的变化。而 I was very angry 则 仅表示当时的状态是生气,并不暗示过程。

最后,终于。 6.in the end, 最后,终于。

表示一段较长的时间之后或某种努力之后:

She tried hard to finish her homework by herself. In the end, she had to ask her brother for help.

她试图自已完成家庭作业,但最后她不得不请她兄弟帮忙。

不关你的事。 7.none of your business, 不关你的事。

(1) sb. 's business 指某人(所关心的或份内)的事:

It is my business to look after your health.

我必须照顾你的身体健康。

This is none of his business.

这根本不关他的事。

(2)表示否定的代词 none 意义上相当于 not any 或 no one,但语气较强:

She kept none of his letters.

他的信件她一封也没有保留。

None of my friends left early.

我的朋友没有一个早离开的。

none of 这个短语有时可以表达一种断然、甚至粗暴的口气,

尤其是在祈使句中:

None of your silly remarks!

别说傻话了!

conversation,私人间的谈话。 8.a private conversation,私人间的谈话。

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在西方文化中人们对 private(私人的,个人的)这个概念很看重。这个词的名词形式 privacy 有"隐私(权)" 的意思。所以课文中的小伙子会振振有词地说"This is a private conversation!"不过他忘了他是在一个 public pl ace(公众场合),而且他们的说话声太大,已经影响了别人。

语法 Grammar in use

简单陈述句的语序(Word 简单陈述句的语序(Word order in simple statements)

主语一般为名词、代词或名词短语,通常位于动词之前。动词必须与主语"一致",所以主语决定动词的单复数形 式(如 I am, you are, he has)。宾语一般为名词、代词或名词短语。在主动句中,宾语一般位于动词之后。一个句 子不总需要有宾语。状语的位置比较灵活。当一个句子里有一种以上的副词时,地点副词的一般位置是在方式副词之 后、时间副词之前,如上面的最后一个例句。时间状语可以在句尾,也可以在句首:

Last night Lucy went to the theatre.

昨晚露西去剧院看戏了。

I heard a voice at the door just now.

我刚才听到门口有声音。

Sam listened to the story quietly.

萨姆静静地听着故事。

The man ran away quickly.

那人很快跑掉了。(无宾语)

词汇学习 Word study

1.enjoy vt.

基本意义为"欣赏"、"享受"、"喜爱",后面一般跟名词、代词(包括反身代词)或动名词形式。

(1)Jane doesn't enjoy swimming. She enjoys going to the theatre.

简不喜欢游泳。她喜欢去剧院看戏。

(2)Enjoy yourself!

好好玩吧!

We always enjoy ourselves.

我们总是玩得很开心。
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2.pay

(1)vt., vi.支付(价款等):

Have you paid the taxi-driver?

你给出租车司机钱了吗?

You can pay a deposit of thirty pounds…

您可以先付 30 英镑的定金……

I paid 50 dollars for this skirt.

我花 50 美元买了这条裙子。

I'll pay by instalments.

我将分期付款。

(2)vt., vi. 给予(注意等);去(访问):

They did not pay any attention.

他们毫不理会。

We paid a visit to our teacher last Sunday. 上星期天我们去拜访了老师。

(3)n. 工资,报酬:

I have not received my pay yet.

我还没有领到工资。

3.bear vt.

(1)承受,支撑,承担,负担:

Can the ice bear my weight?

这冰能承受我的体重吗?

Who will bear the cost?

谁来承担这笔费用?

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(2)忍受(一般与 can/could 连用于疑问句及否定句中):

She eats too fast. I can't bear to watch/watching her.

她吃得太快。我看着受不了。

How can you bear living in this place?

你怎么能受得了住在这个地方?

In the end, 1 could not bear it.

最后,我忍不住了。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A I (1) got (2) very angry (3) .

I (1) could not hear (2) the actors (3) .

I (1) turned round (2) .

I (1) looked at (2) the man and the woman (3) angrily (4) .

They (1) did not pay (2) any attention (3) .

In the end (6), I (1) could not bear (2) it (3).

I (1) turned round (2) again (6) .

I (1) can't hear (2) a word (3)! '

I (1) said (2) angrily (4) .

It (1) is (2) none of your business (3) , '

the young man (1) said (2) rudely (4) .

This (1) is (2) a private conversation (3)!'

B 1 I enjoyed the film yesterday.

2 I listened to the news carefully.

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3 The man played the piano well.

4 The children played games quietly in their room yesterday.

5 He opened the door quietly.

6 He left immediately.

7 He planted a tree in the corner of the garden.

8 He read the letter quickly in his office before lunch.

9 I borrowed a book from the library this morning.

10 The cook spoilt the soup.

11 We stay at home on Sundays.

12 There are a lot of people at the bus stop.

13 The little boy ate greedily an apple in the kitchen this morning.

14 She draws beautifully.

15 I like music very much.

16 They built a new school in our village last year.

17 The match ended at four o'clock.

18 She received a letter from her brother last week.

2.多项选择题答案

1 b

2 c 3 b 4 d 5 c 6 a

7 d

8 b 9 a 10 c 11 c 12 c

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 2
课文详注 Further notes on the text

那是个星期天。 1.It was Sunday. 那是个星期天。

在句子中,我们常常用 it 指时间、天气、温度或距离。这种 it 有时被称为"虚主语"

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(empty subject),因为它没有实际意义。它之所以存在,是因为英语句子必须包含主语和谓语。请注意以下例 句:

表示时间:

It is 8 o'clock.

8 点了。

表示天气:

It's raining again.

又下雨了。

It is cold.

天气冷。

表示环境:

It was dark outside.

外面一片漆黑。

作为第 3 人称单数的中性代词,it 可以指一件东西、一个事件或者用来指是什么人:

It was my aunt Lucy.

是我姑母露西。(打来电话者)

It is a lovely baby.

真是个可爱的小宝宝。

在星期天的时侯。 2.on Sundays, 在星期天的时侯。

(1)复数形式指每个星期日,或大部分星期日,与一般现在时连用,表示经常性的行为:

We do not go to school on Sundays.

星期天我们不上学。

I never get up early on Sundays.

星期天我从来不早起。 你
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(2)介词 on 一般用于表示某一天的时间短语中:

on Monday 星期一

on Friday 星期五

on Monday morning 在星期一早上

on that day 在那一天

当我们使用 last, next 和 this, that 时,介词(以及定冠词)必须省略:

I'll see you next/this Friday.

下个/这个星期五再见。

Last Sunday I got up very late.

上个星期天我起得很晚。

有时我要一直躺到吃午饭的时候。 3.I sometimes stay in bed until lunchtime. 有时我要一直躺到吃午饭的时候。

(1)在表达卧床的意思时 bed 前不需加冠词:

You must stay/remain in bed for another two days.

你必须再卧床两天。

What time did you go to bed last night?

你昨晚几点睡的?

It is time for bed now.

该睡觉了。

(2)until 用于表示动作、状态等的持续,可以译为"一直到……为止"或"在……以前"。在肯定句中,它与表示 持续性状态的动词连用,表示持续到某一时刻:

I'll wait here until 5.

我会在这里等到 5 点钟。

在否定句中,它通常与描述短暂动作的动词连用,表示"到……为止"、"直到……才":

She cannot arrive until 6.
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她到 6 点才能来。

The rain did not stop until this morning.

直到今天早上雨才停了。

坐火车来。 4.arrive by train, 坐火车来。

by air 乘飞机

by bicycle/bike 骑自行车

by boat 乘船

by bus 乘公共汽车

by car 乘小汽车

by land 由陆路

by plane 乘飞机

by sea 由海路

by ship 乘船

by train 乘火车

Every morning he goes to school by bus.

他每天早上坐公共汽车去上学。

Long ago people could go to America only by ship/sea.

很早以前人们只能乘船去美洲。

如果是特指的交通工具,则要加冠词或其他限定词:

My aunt left by the 9:15 train.

我姑妈乘 9 点 1 刻的火车走的。

天哪。 5.Dear me, 天哪。

这个感叹方式可以表示惊愕、困惑、同情等。还可以说"Oh, dear!"或"Dear, dear!"

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语法 Grammar in use

和一般现在时(The 1.现在进行时(The present progressive tense) 和一般现在时(The present simple tense) 现在进行时(The

现在进行时表示说话时正在进行的动作或正在发生的事件,往往与 now, just, still 等副词连用(cf. 第 1 册第 31 课):

John is still sleeping.

约翰还在睡觉。

Jane is just dressing up.

简正在打扮。

Mrs. Smith is cooking now.

史密斯太太现在正在做饭。

一般现在时可以表示习惯性动作,往往与频度副词连用,如 often, always, sometimes, never 等:

Do you often come here?

你常来这儿吗?

I always to the library on Friday.

星期五我经常去图书馆。

Helen never writes to her brother Tony. She sometimes rings him.

海伦从来不给她兄弟托尼写信。她有时给他打电话。

现在进行时也用来表示当前(一段时间)的动向:

Jack is working hard these days.

杰克最近工作很努力。

He does not usually work hard.

他通常是不努力工作的。

2.感叹句(Exclamations) 感叹句(Exclamations)

以 what 开头的感叹句结构为:
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What+adj.+n. +主语+谓语!

主语和谓语经常被省略:

What an interesting play (it is)!

多么有趣的一出戏!

What a lot of flowers!

这么多花呀!

What fools they are!

他们真傻!

如果没有形容词,则往往表示批评或不大好的意思:

What a thing to say!

多么难听的话啊!

What a day!

鬼天气!

词汇学习 Word study

1.ring vt.

(1)鸣,响,发出清脆响亮的声音:

Just then, the telephone rang.

正在这时,电话铃响了。

Every morning the clock rings at 6.

这钟每天早上 6 点响。

(2)打电话给(美国英语中用 call):

Please ring me when you get home.

到家后请来个电话。

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Did you ring the doctor?

你给医生打电话了吗?

2.repeat

(1)vt. 重复:

Will you repeat the last word?

您能重说一下最后一个字吗?

They are repeating that wonderful play.

他们正在重演那部精彩的戏剧。

(2)vi. 重做,重说:

Please repeat after me.

请跟我重复。

Don't repeat.

不要重复。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A 1 are playing…play…is kicking…is running

2'What are you doing?'my landlady asked.'I'm leaving, Mrs. Lynch, I answered.'Why are you leaving? 'she asked…'…friends never come to visit me…I frequently go to bed…I rarely listen…I always feel cold…'

B 1 She rarely answers my letters.

2 We never work after six o'clock.

3 The shops always close on Saturday afternoons.

4 Do you always go to work by car?

5 Our teacher frequently collects our exercise books.

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6 We sometimes spend our holidays abroad.

7 I often buy CDs.

8 Do you ever buy CDs?

2.难点练习答案

1 What a wonderful garden(this is) !

2 What a surprise( this is) !

3 What a lot of trouble he is causing!

4 What wonderful actors (they are) !

5 What a hard-working woman (she is) !

6 What a tall building (it is) !

7 What a terrible film (it is) !

8 What a clever boy you are!

9 What a pretty girl (she is) !

10 What a strange guy (he is) !

3.多项选择题答案

1 c

2 d 3 c 4 c 5 a 6 b

7 b

8 a 9 d 10 c 11d 12 b

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 3
课文详注 Further notes on the text

一位好客的服务员教了我几句意大利语。 1.A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian. 一位好客的服务员教了我几句意大利语。

(1)虽然 friendly 是以-ly 结尾,在拼法上与许多副词一样,但它却是形容词:

He always greets me in a friendly way.

他总是亲切地和我打招呼。

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She gave me a friendly greeting.

她友好地和我打了一下招呼。

He is not very friendly to John.

他对约翰不太友善。

类似的形容词有: brotherly, fatherly, manly, lovely, motherly 等。

(2)a few 可与复数可数名词连用,表示肯定,含有 some, a small number of(一些,少数几个)的意思:

The police would like to ask him a few questions.

警察要问他一些问题。

Mother is coming in a few days.

妈妈过几天就要来了。

之后还借给我一本书。 2.Then he lent me a book. 之后还借给我一本书。

像 send, buy, give 等动词一样, lend 可以有两个宾语: 一个直接宾语 (通常指物) 一个间接宾语 , (通常指人) 。 (cf. 本课语法)在这句话中,lend 的直接宾语为 a book,间接宾语为 me。

Would you lend me your pen?

能把你的笔借我用一下吗?

Yesterday I lent my dictionary to Mary.

昨天我把字典借给了玛丽。

word.……但一个字也不懂 但一个字也不懂。 的否定意义比单用 要强。 3.…but I did not understand a word.……但一个字也不懂。not…a 的否定意义比单用 not 要强。课文的最 single",语气更强。 后一句加了 single",语气更强。

我每天都想着明信片的事。 4.Every day I thought about postcards. 我每天都想着明信片的事。

think about 可以指某一段时间一直在想/考虑某事:

I often think about the lovely holiday we had last year.

我经常回想我们去年度过的愉快的假期。

What are you thinking about?

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你在想什么?

I'm thinking about my friends.

我在想我的朋友们。

作出一项重大决定。 5.make a big decision, 作出一项重大决定。

make/take a decision, 作出决定。这是个常用的词语搭配,可以灵活使用:

It was not easy for me to make/ take this decision.

对我来说作出这项决定并不容易。

You have made/taken a wrong decision.

你作出了个错误的决定。

Have you made/taken a decision?

你决定了吗?

room…我在房间里关了整整一天 我在房间里关了整整一天…… 6.I spent the whole day in my room…我在房间里关了整整一天……

(1)spend 与表示时间的词/短语连用时,意思为"花(时间)"、"度过":

We're going to spend three days in the country.

我们打算到乡下去 3 天。

spend 还可以表示"花钱":

If we spend all the money, we'll be poor again.

如果我们把所有的钱都花光了,我们又会变穷的。

I can't spend any more on this car.

我不能再为这车花钱了。

(2)whole 表示"整整的"、"整个的":

a whole year 一整年

a whole bottle of milk 一整瓶牛奶

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two whole weeks 整整两星期

语法 Grammar in use

1.一般过去时 (The simple past tense) 与一般现在时

上一课的语法提到一般现在时可以表示习惯性或经常性的动作。 在用一般现在时询问有关习惯的问题时可用 ever。

一般过去时通常表示过去发生的而现在已经结束的事件、动作或情况。它通常指动作何时发生,而不指动作持续 多久。因此,过去时与表明事情何时发生的状语连用是非常重要的。

像 last summer, last winter, last week, last night 等这类状语只能与过去时连用,不能与现在时连用,因 为它们确指过去的时间。

2.直接宾语 (Direct object) 与间接宾语 ( Indiret object)

许多及物动词后可以有两个宾语,直接宾语通常是动作所涉及的事物,间接宾语表示动作是对谁做的或为谁做的, 通常是人。 这类动词有 give, show, send, bring, lend, tell, return, write, pay, teach, make, buy, find 等。 通常间接宾语在前,紧跟动词;不过,如想要强调直接宾语,也可将它置于动词之后、间接宾语之前。这时,间接宾 语之前则必须用介词 to 或 for:

词汇学习 Word study

1.spoil vt.

(1)弄坏,损坏,糟蹋:

The sad news spoiled our weekend.

这不幸的消息使我们没能过好周末。

The rain spoiled the school sports.

这场雨把学校运动会弄得一团糟。

(2)宠坏,惯坏,溺爱:

Julie loves her son too much. She has spoiled him.

朱莉太爱她的儿子了。她把他惯坏了。

Don't spoil your children.

不能太惯孩子。

2.public
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(1)adj. 公共的,公众的,社会的:

There is a public library in this town.

这镇上有一个公共图书馆。

I always sit in public gardens on Sundays.

星期天我经常去公园坐坐。

(2)adj. 公开的,众人皆知的:

Their secret meeting was made public 20 years later.

他们的秘密会晤 20 年以后才被公开。

(3)n.公众,群众,大众:

The public is/ are pleased with his explanation.

公众对他的解释很满意。

The museum is open to the public on Sunday.

这家博物馆星期天对公众开放。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A went (1.1);visited (1.2) ;sat(1.2) ;taught(1.2);lent;read(1.3) ;did not understand;thought (1.4);passed (1.5) ;did not send(1.5) ;made; go up (1.6) ;bought (1.7) ;spent(1.7) ;did not wri te(1.8)C …Roy died last year…left me…spent a lot of money…bought one or two…never went to the cin ema…stayed at home…listened to music…often lent CDs…they kept them…lost many CDs…

2.难点练习答案

1 He paid some money to the shopkeeper.

2 He handed the prize to me.

3 The waiter brought the man a bottle of beer.

4 He sold me all his books.

5 The shop assistant found me some curtain material.
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6 He did a big favour for me.

7 She showed her new hat to her husband.

8 She promised the finder a reward.

9 He gave some advice to his son.

10 His uncle left some money to/ for him.

11 He is teaching us English.

12 I bought you this bunch of flowers.

13 Bring me that book please.

14 He offered a cigarette to me.

15 Read the first paragraph to me.

16 I've ordered you some soup.

17 I owe a lot of money to him.

18 Pass your father the mustard.

3.多项选择题答案

1c 2a 3c 4a 5d 6b

7c 8c 9b 10a

11b

12b

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 4
课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in A ustralia. (他)正在为一家大公司工作,并且已经去过澳大利亚的不少地方了。 正在为一家大公司工作,并且已经去过澳大利亚的不少地方了。

(1) work for 指"在……上班/任职":

表达"上班"这个意思时还可以说 work at:

She works at a department store.

她在一家百货商店上班。
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(2)a number of 只能接可数名词的复数形式。通常,number 前有 great, large, good, small, certain 等形容 词,数量大小也随之改变:

A large/ great number of our students are Danish.

我们的学生中有许多是丹麦人。

There are a small number of spelling mistakes in your homework.

你的家庭作业里有少数几个拼写错误。

他不久还将到达尔文去。 2.He will soon visit Darwin. 他不久还将到达尔文去。

will 表示将来要发生的事。这句话的时态是一般将来时。(cf. 第 12 课语法)下一句话 From there, he will fly to Perth 也是一般将来时。

3.My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting. 我弟弟以前从 未出过国,因此,他觉得这次旅行非常激动人心。

(1)这句话由两个简单句组成,后一句由连词 so 引导,为表示结果的状语从句。

(2)find 作"发现"、"发觉"讲时宾语往往带补足语(一般为形容词),说明宾语的状况、性质等:

I find the film very interesting.

我觉得这电影很有趣。

She found Ton's room very dirty.

她发现汤姆的房间非常脏。

She has already found herself wrong.

她已经发现自己错了。

需要注意的是,find 一词很少用于进行时态,一般用于过去时、完成时及一般现在时等。

语法 Grammar in use

1.现在完成时与现在进行时

现在完成时的时间概念有时是不确定的。(cf. 第 1 册第 83~88 课)我们所关心的是现存的结果,或者过去发生 的事对现在的影响。现在完成时不能和明确表示过去的副词(如 ago, yesterday 等)连用。经常和现在完成时连用的 副词和副词短语有:before(now)(〈在此〉以前);so far(到目前为止);up to now (直到现在);just(刚 刚);already(已经);lately(最近);now(现在);疑问句和否定句中常用 ever, yet, never, not… ever 等。 现在进行时经常用于表示在短期内正在进行的动作或存在的情况,因此往往不需要和时间状语连用。试比较:
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2.同位语 (Appositives)

一个名词(或短语等)与另一个名词(或短语)并列而作为其说明或限定成分时称为同位语。同位语与它所补充 说明的成分之间用逗号隔开。课文中有两句话含有同位语:

I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim.

我刚刚收到弟弟蒂姆的来信。(Tim 是 my brother 的同位语。它们指的是同一个人。Tim 用来补充说明 my broth er 的名字)

He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the centre of Australia.

他刚买了一辆澳大利亚小汽车,现在去了澳大利亚中部的小镇艾利斯斯普林斯。(在这句话中 a small town in the centre of Australia 是 Alice Springs 的同位语,补充说明这是个多大的镇子,在什么地方)

在译成汉语时,同位语或者插入主句中,或者另译为一句,很少像英语中那样用逗号隔开。请参阅课文中两个句 子的译文。同位语如果太长,可以另译为一句。如课文中第二个例句的后半部分可以译为:"现在去了艾利斯斯普林斯。 这是澳大利亚中部的一个小镇。"

同位语的其他例子如: 同位语的其他例子如:

This is John, one of my best friends.

这位是约翰。他是我最好的朋友之一。

Mrs. Smith, my neighbour, has never been abroad.

我的邻居史密斯夫人从来没有出过国。

词汇学习 Word study

1.receive vt.

(1)接到,收到,得到:

When did you receive that letter?

你什么时候收到那封信的?

Susan received a gift/card this morning.

今天上午苏珊收到了一份礼物/一张卡。

receive 是"收到",指的是一个被动的动作,主观上接受与不接受并不清楚。take 则是主动地"拿"、"取":
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He told me to take the keys from his pocket.

他让我从他口袋里把钥匙拿出来。

I received a beautiful pen from my uncle. My brother took it from me yesterday.

我叔叔给了我一枝漂亮的钢笔。昨天我弟弟把笔拿走了。

(2)招待,接待:

You need a large room if you are going to receive so many guests.

如果你要接待这么多客人,你就需要一个大房间。

We usually receive guests on Saturday.

我们通常星期六招待宾客。

(名词为 2.different adj. (名词为 difference)

(1)不同的,相异的(经常与 from 连用):

Desks are different from tables.

书桌与桌子不一样。

My room is different form yours.

我的房间与你的不同。

We are planning something different this year.

我们今年有不同的打算。

(2)各种各样的,不同的:

He has visited many different places in China.

他去过中国的不少地方。

This department store sells a large number of different things.

这家百货商店新概念许多各种各样的东西。

练习答案 练习答案 Key to written exercises

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1.关键句型练习答案

A 1 I have just had breakfast.

2 He has been in prison for six months.

3 The police have not caught the thief yet.

4 You have (already) asked that question three times (already).

5 Have you ever been to Switzerland?

6 I have never been to Switzerland.

7 He is a wonderful runner. He has broken two records so far .

8 I haven't seen George lately .

C 1 He has just left the house .

2 He has just had breakfast .

3 She has just written a letter .

4 My sister has just turned on the radio .

5 My mother has just made the bed .

6 She has just bought a new hat.

D 1 He hasn't washed the dishes yet .

2 She hasn't made the beds yet .

3 He hasn't combed his hair yet .

4 She hasn't swept the carpet yet .

5 We haven't read ' Macbeth'yet .

E 1 Have you seen the new play at 'The Globe'yet ?

2 Have you taken your holidays yet ?

3 Have you read this book yet ?

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4 Have you done your homework yet ?

5 Have you finished your work yet ?

2 .难点练习答案

1 received 2 received 3 took 4 taken 5 take

3.多项选择题答案

1d 2b 3a 4b 5b 6a

7c 8b 9c 10a

11c

12c

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 5
课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.Pinhurst is only five miles from Silbury, but Mr. Scott cannot get a telephone for his new gara new ge, so he has just bought twelve pigeons.

平赫斯特离锡尔伯里只有 5 英里,但詹姆斯·斯科特先生未能为他新的汽车修理部搞到一部电话机,所以他买了 1 2 只鸽子。

(1)这句话由 3 个部分组成。but 引导的句子与前面的句子为并列关系,so 引导的句子表示结果。

(2)from 在这里表示距离上相隔,译为"离"、"从"等:

The school is a mile (away) from my house.

学校离我家有一英里。

She has been away from home for 5 days now.

她离家已有 5 天了。

昨天, 2.Yesterday, a pigeon carried the first message from Pinhurst to Silbury. 昨天,一只鸽子把第一封 信从平赫斯特带到锡尔伯里。 信从平赫斯特带到锡尔伯里。

(1)from…to…表示从一个地方到另一个地方。如下文中的 from one garage to the other。这个短语中顺序比 较重要,不能搞错方向:

He flew from Beijing to Moscow.

他从北京坐飞机去莫斯科。
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He looked at the girl from head to foot.

他把这姑娘从头到脚打量了一下。

The news spread from house to house.

家家户户都得知了这条消息。

(2)message 在这里的意思是"(口头或书面的)信息"、"信":

an oral/ written message 口信/便条

Hers is a message for you from your sister.

这是你姐姐/妹妹给你留的便条。

John has gone to his office. Would you like to leave him a message?

约翰去办公室了。你愿意给他留个口信吗?

与 message 相关的另一个词是 messenger,意为"送信人"、"信使"等。

3.Up to now, Mr. Scott has sent a great many requests for spare parts and other urgent messages f rom one garage to the other.

到目前为止,斯科特先生从一个汽车修理部向另一个发送了大量索取备件的信件和其他紧急函件。

(1)这句话看起来很长,但却是个简单句。sent 有两个宾语,一是 requests,二是 messages。from one garage to the other 是整个句子的状语。

(2)up to now 相当于 until/till now,意思是"迄今"、"到目前为止",一般与现在完成时连用:

Up to now, he has not been very hard-working.

到目前为止,他一直不是很用功。

Up to now, he has collected a good number of stamps.

到目前为止,他已收集了许多邮票。

(3)request 作名词"要求"、"请求"讲时,往往需要补充说明其内容,如课文中 requests for spare parts(索 取备件的信件)。

She sent a request for help to Gary.

她向加里请求帮助。
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He granted my request for more time.

他同意了我延长时间的请求。

(4)a great many 在这句话中为形容词短语。many 单独使用时前面不加 a,但加了 great/ good 等形容词后,前 面要加 a

A great many trees were destroyed in the storm.

好多树在这场暴风雨中被毁坏了。

a great many 还可以作代词短语用:

He has read a great many of the books in this room.

这房间的书他好多都读过了。

4.In this way, he has begun his own private'telephone' service.

就这样,他开始了自己的私人"电话"业务。

(1)service 作为不可数名词时通常用于表示旅馆、餐馆以及商店等对旅客、顾客等的侍候、接待或服务;它作为 可数名词时可以表示为帮助他人所采取的行动或所做的工作:

The service in that hotel is quite good.

那家旅馆的服务很不错。

You have done me a great service.

你帮了我很大的忙。

(2)在课文中,service 的意思是"业务"、"公用事业"等。这类用法一般有: the mail service(邮政业务); the telephone service(电话业务);a travel service(旅行社);a news service(通讯社)等。可以看出,se rvice 既可以指公用事业的业务,也可以指办这些业务的机构。因此,课文中的"' telephone'service"实际上是个大 词,有一种幽默感。

语法 Grammar in use

1.一般过去时与现在完成时

在表示过去某个特定时间发生的事情或动作时,要用一般过去时:

Yesterday, a pigeon carried the first message from Pinhurst to Silbury.

昨天,一只鸽子把第一封信从平赫斯特带到锡尔伯里。
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在表示刚刚或者已经完成一个动作并且对现在有影响时,则要用现在完成时,时间状语可以是不特指的 now, jus t,或者是 for 引导的一段时间,或者不加任何时间状语:

He has written a book.

他写了一本书。

…now he has just bought another garage in Pinhurst.

……现在他刚在平赫斯特买下了另一个汽车修理部。(现在拥有)

在一段文章中可以同时出现一般现在时、一般过去时和现在完成时。因此,要根据具体情况灵活运用这些时态, 体会它们之间的区别:

I have a brother, Tom. He is an engineer. He has been abroad for three years now. Several days ago, I received a letter from him.

我有一个弟弟,名叫汤姆。他是位工程师。他出国已 3 年了。几天前我收到了一封他的来信。

2.带 way 的一些短语

名词 way 的用法很灵活,能组成不同的搭配:

(1)in the/ one's way, 妨碍(某人):

You are in my way.

你挡着我了。

Don't stand in the way. I can't see the blackboard.

别挡着我的视线。我看不见黑板了。

(2) in the way, 按照,以……方式:

You can make the cake in the way I have told you.

你可以按我告诉你的方法做蛋糕。

(3) on the/ one's way, 在途中:

I met Mary on my way to school.

我在去学校的路上遇到了玛丽。

(4) by the way, 顺便提一下(插入语,改变话题时使用):
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By the way, have you met Bill before?

顺便问一下,你以前见过比尔吗?

(5) in a way, 在某种程度上,从某种意义来说:

In a way you are right.

从某种意义上说你是对的。

词汇学习 Word study

1.cover

(1)vt. 盖,覆盖:

Snow covered the whole village.

大雪覆盖了整个村庄。

She covered the child with a coat.

她给孩子盖了件外衣。

(2)vt. 行过(一段距离),走过(通常不用被动语态):

He covered sixty miles this morning.

他今天上午走了 60 英里。

You can cover the distance to the museum in ten minutes.

你 10 分钟就可以走到博物馆。

(3)n. 覆盖物,盖子,罩子,套子:

Put a cover on the box!

给这盒子加个罩!

2.spare

(1)vt. 抽出(时间等),让给:

Have you got five minutes to spare?

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你能抽出 5 分钟时间吗?

(2)vt. 饶恕,赦免:

The robbers spared his life.

强盗们没要他的命。

(3)adj.多余的,空闲的,剩下的,备用的:

You can sleep in the spare bedroom.

你可以睡在那间空着的卧室。

I have no spare time now.

我现在没有空闲时间。

She has some spare money.

她有一些活钱。

Where can I get spare parts for this machine?

我从哪里可以找到这台机器的备件?

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A What happened: carried (1.4 ) ; covered (1. 5 )

What has happened: has just bought (1.1) ; has just bought (11.3-4);has sent(1.6);has begun(1.8)

C 1 What did you buy … ?

2 he has never lent …

3 Have you burnt … ?

4 He fought …

5 They have already left .

6 When did you lose … ?

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7 Did you listen … ?

8 We have just won …

2.难点练习答案

A 1 On the way

2 in the way

3 By the way

4 in this/a way

5 in the way

B 1 There is a spare wheel in the back of the car.

2 I always go on excursions in my spare time.

3 'Have you any old clothes to spare? 'he asked.

4 The guest slept in our spare room.

5 'Spare me!'begged the prisoner.

3.多项选择题答案

1c 2a 3d 4b 5c 6d

7a 8b 9c 10b

11a

12d

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 6
课文详注 Further notes on the text

我刚刚搬进了大桥街的一所房子。 1.I have just moved to a house in Bridge Street. 我刚刚搬进了大桥街的一所房子。

move 常用的意义是"动"、"移动"。在这句话里它的意思是"搬家"、"迁移",为不及物动词。在表达"搬家"这个意 思时 move 可以单独使用,也可以组成短语 move to, move into, move in, move out 等:

Jack has moved out. John will move in the day after tomorrow.

杰克已经搬走了。约翰后天搬进来。

2.He asked me for a meal and a glass of beer. (他问)我要一顿饭和一杯啤酒。 他问)我要一顿饭和一杯啤酒。
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在表示请求时,可以用 ask+sb. +for+sth.,也可以直接用 ask for:

Don't always ask others for help.

别总向他人求助。

He never asks his parents for money.

他从来不向父母要钱。

作为报答,作为交换。 3.in return for this, 作为报答,作为交换。

in return 可以单独使用,也可以加介词 for 说明原因:

You lent me this interesting book last month. In return (for it), I'll show you some picture book s.

你上个月把这本有趣的书借给了我。作为报答,我将给你看一些画册。

In return for your help, I invite you to spend the weekend with my family.

你帮了我的忙。作为回报,我邀请你与我的家人一起过这个周末。

后来,一位邻居告诉了我他的情况。 4.Later a neighbour told me about him. 后来,一位邻居告诉了我他的情况。

介词 about 可以和一些动词连用,以表示"关于……(的)"、"涉及……(的)":

Please tell me about the accident.

请告诉我这次事故的一些情况。

He spoke to me about his dog.

他和我讲了讲他的狗。

I have read about him.

关于他的情况我曾经读到过。

每月一次。 5.once a month, 每月一次。

once 表示频率时后面直接加表示时间的名词:

Jane wrote to her parents once a week.

简每星期给父母写封信。
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He goes back to the South once a year.

他每年回一次南方。

The postman calls once a day.

邮递员每天来一次。

语法 Grammar in use

1.a, the 与 some 的用法

当表示不确定的某个人或东西时,用不定冠词 a/an:

He bought a book this afternoon.

今天下午他买了本书。

There is a man in front of your car.

你的汽车前面有一个男人。

当表示不可数的名词时,则需要由不定冠词加量词组成词组:

A cup of coffee, please.

请给我来一杯咖啡。

I need a sheet of paper.

我需要一张纸。

当表示一类事物的性质、状态时,可以用下列方法表示:

A tiger is a dangerous animal.

老虎是一种危险的动物。

Tigers are dangerous.

老虎是危险的。

Salt is necessary for/ to us all.

我们大家都需要盐。

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some 用于表示不确定的某些人或东西,可数和不可数都可以:

He put some books on the desk.

他把一些书放在了桌上。

Some students are absent today.

今天有些学生缺席了。

I like to put some sugar in the soup.

我喜欢在汤里加些糖。

如果指某个确定的人或事物或者上文已提到过的人或事物,则要用定冠词 the(有时相当于 this/ that):

The man has just left.

那人刚走。

Do you still want the ticket?

你还想要这张票吗?

Yesterday I saw a beautiful skirt in a shop. But the skirt was too expensive.

昨天我在商店看见一条漂亮的裙子。但是那裙子太贵了。

在姓名、地名、国名(非复合词)以及月份、星期等前面不加任何冠词:

Tom is in Germany now. He studies physics in Berlin. He has a house in Bridge Street.

汤姆现在在德国。他在柏林学习物理学。在大桥街他有一所房子。

April is a pleasant month.

4 月气候宜人。

He has classes on Monday.

他星期一有课。

冠词的用法比较复杂,需慢慢积累。

2.短语动词 (Phrasal verbs)

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许多动词加上介词或副词后就会改变词义,因此需要记住整个短语,并根据上下文的意义判断动词在句子中的意 思。常见的短语动词有: put on(穿上,戴上), take off(脱掉,摘掉), look for (寻找),look after(照 顾,照料):

Don't put the cup on the table!

别把杯子放在桌上!

It is cold outside. Put on your coat.

今天外面冷。穿上外衣。

Someone has taken my pen.

有人把我的钢笔拿走了。

Take off your wet shoes, please.

请把你的湿鞋子脱掉。

She looked at the picture carefully.

她仔细地看着那幅画。

What are you looking for?

你在找什么?

She looked after the sick baby for three days.

她照顾了那个病孩子 3 天。

词汇学习 Word study

1.knock

(1)vi. 敲门:

Someone is knocking at the door.

有人在敲门。

I knocked, but no one answered.

我敲了敲门,但是没人答应。

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(2)vt., vi. 碰撞:

You always knock things off the table. 你总是碰掉桌上的东西。

Jim was knocked over by a bus this morning.

今天上午吉姆被一辆公共汽车撞倒了。

She has knocked a cup over again.

她又碰倒了一个杯子。

(3)vt. 把(某人)打成……状态:

Bob is very strong. He knocked Tom out yesterday.

鲍勃很强壮,他昨天把汤姆打昏过去了。

(4)与 off 连用时有一些特殊的含义。一般用于口语。

A vt.(价格上)减去,除去,打折扣:

They knocked five dollars off the price of the coat.

他们把这件上衣的价格降低了 5 美元。

B vi. 下班,停止,中断(工作等):

When do you usually knock off?

你一般什么时候下班?

He knocked off for lunch at half past eleven.

他 11 点半休息吃中午饭。

2.call

(1)vt., vi. 叫,喊:

I heard someone calling.

我听见有人在喊叫。

(2)vt. 呼唤,召唤:

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Lucy is sick. Please call a doctor.

露西病了。请去叫个医生来。

(3)vi. 访问,拜访;(车、船等)停靠:

Amy called(at our house) yesterday.

艾米昨天来(我们家)了。

I have just called on Mr. Frith.

我刚刚去看望过弗里斯先生。

The train calls at large stations only.

这列火车只停大站。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A Some meat, a desk, some tobacco, a tin of beans, a comb, acity, a/ some cloth, some oil, a bottl e of beer, a day, a word, a student, some sugar, some rain, an orange, a/ some rubber

D (sample answers)

1 I found an old coin in the garden.

2 I put some sugar in my tea.

3 I cut some wood for a/ the fire.

4 I bought a newspaper yesterday.

5 I made some coffee.

6 I like the curtains in this room.

2.难点练习答案

A 1 out 2 over 3 off 4 at

B 1 knocked him out

2 knock off
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3 knocked 20% off the price

3.多项选择题答案

1 d

2 a 3 c 4 d 5 d 6 a

7 d

8 a 9 b 10 a 11d 12 a

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 7
课文详注 Further notes on the text

侦探们在机场等了整整一上午。 1.…detectives were waiting at the airport all morning. ……侦探们在机场等了整整一上午。 ……侦探们在机场等了整整一上午

all 一般直接加表示时间的单数名词构成副同短语,如:all day (整整一天),all night(整夜),all week (整星期),all winter(整个冬天),all year(整年)等。但不说 all hour。

whole 在表达同样的意思时一般要加冠词或数词,如:a whole day/ year(一整天/年),two whole weeks(整 整两星期)。

有人向警方报告, 2.…someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. ……有人向警方报告, ……有人向警方报告 说有人企图偷走这些钻石。 说有人企图偷走这些钻石。

that 后面的部分为动词 tell 的宾语从句。从句中的时态为过去将来时(would)。

3.When the plane arrived, some of the detectives were waiting inside the main building while othe inside rs were waiting on the airfield.

当飞机到达时,一些侦探等候在主楼内,另一些侦探则守候在停机坪上。

(1)这个长句子由 3 个部分组成:when 引导的是整个句子的时间状语从句;some of…building 为主句;while 引导的是动作与主句的动作同时进行的时间状语从句。 while 作为连词表示"和……同时"、 "当……时候"时常常引导一 个过去进行时从句。(cf. 本课语法)

(2)地点状语 on the airfield 与第一句中的 at the airport 意义相近。注意介词 on 和 at 的不同搭配。

(3)代词 others 常常和 some 连用,表示"有些(人)……,也有些(人)……"或者"有的……,其余的……":

Some students are very hard-working; others are not.

有些学生非常用功;有些则不然。

Some of the novels are interesting; (the) others are not.

在这些小说中,有些很有趣,其他的则不然。
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守望,警戒, guard(站岗,放哨)意思相近。 4.keep guard, 守望,警戒,与 stand guard(站岗,放哨)意思相近。

Two thieves kept guard around the house while the others entered it.

两个小偷在屋子外面守着,其他的则进了屋。

They kept a close guard over the thieves.

他们对小偷们严加看管。

令他们吃惊的是。 5.to their surprise, 令他们吃惊的是。

这个短语中的所有格形容词 their 也可以换成其他所有格形容词: (much) to my/ his surprise, to our surpri se 等。一般不说 to your surprise.

语法 Grammar in use

1.过去进行时(The past progressive tense) 过去进行时(The

构成:be 的过去式+现在分词(注意现在分词的构成)

(1)过去进行时主要表示过去某个时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作。过去进行时和一般过去时经常同在一个句子 里使用。过去进行时表示过去正在进行的动作或情况,一般过去时则表示比较短暂的动作或事件。正在进行中的动作 或情况往往由连词 when, while, as, just as 等引导:

While/ When/ As I was sweeping the floor, I found your pen.

我扫地的时候,发现了你的钢笔。

while 通常只引导持续时间较长的动作,并且主句和从句可以同时用过去进行时,而 when 和 as 一般不这么用:

John was watching TV while his wife was talking with a neighbour over the phone.

当他的妻子和一位邻居在电话中聊天时,约翰一直在看电视。

Some students were dancing and singing while others were eating and drinking.

有些学生在唱歌跳舞,而另一些则在吃喝。

Just as I was opening the front door, the telephone rang.

我正开前门的时候,电话铃响了。

Just as I was leaving the house, you came in.

你进来的时候我正要出门。
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when 也可以引导比较短暂的动作,while 和 as 则一般不行:

We were having supper when the lights went out.

我们正在吃晚饭时灯灭了。

2)过去进行时往往与表示一段时间的状语连用,如 all morning, all night, all day, all evening, the who le week 等,表示这段时间一直在干什么:

They were preparing for the party for two whole days.

整整两天他们一直在为晚会进行准备。

2.短语动词中的小品词(The particles) 短语动词中的小品词(The

在上一课的语法中已经提到,许多动词加上介词或副词后就会改变词义。这些介词和副词通常被称为小品词。它 们没有词形变化。有些小品词既可以作介词又可以作副词。判断一个小品词是副词还是介词要看小品词有没有带宾语。 有宾语的是介词,没有宾语的是副词。介词的位置相对固定些:I am looking for Tim.

我在找蒂姆。(for 为介词,位置不能变动)

She looked after the baby.

她照顾那孩子。(after 为介词)

He put the fire/ it out.

他灭了火。(out 为副词)

Mother woke the children/ them up.

母亲把孩子们叫醒了。(up 为副词)

She took the picture/ it down.

她把画取了下来。(down 为副词)

Please turn the radio/ it off.

请把收音机关掉。(off 为副词)

He turned it on.

约翰打开了电视。(on 为副词)

Put the cake on the table.
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把蛋糕放在桌上。(on 为介词)

She is walking up the hill.

她正向山上走去。(up 为介词)

词汇学习 Word study

1.expect

(1)vt., vi. 预计,预料:

We expect a cold winter this year.

我们预计今年冬天会冷。

Jim has failed in mathematics as his teacher expected.

正如他老师所预料的那样,吉姆数学考试没及格。

等待,期待,盼望: (2)vt. 等待,期待,盼望:

I'm expecting a letter from Jimmy.

我在等待吉米的一封信。

They are expecting guests tonight.

今晚有人要去他们那里作客。

expect 所表示的等待一般暗含着根据某些信息或规律而作出相应反应的意思,而 wait(for)主要指"等待"这个动 作本身:

He waited for her for more than an hour, but she did not come.

他等了她一个多小时,但她没来。

Wait a minute, please.

请等一下。

认为,猜想(一般用于口语): (3)vt. 认为,猜想(一般用于口语):

I expect you've heard the news.

我想你已经听到这个消息了。
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2.steal

(1)vt. vi. 偷盗,行窃:

Someone has stolen my bike.

有人把我的自行车偷走了。

John never steals.

约翰从不偷东西。

(2)vt. 巧妙地占有,偷偷地弄到手:

He has stolen away Mary's heart.

他已赢得玛丽的芳心。

(3)vi. 偷偷地行动,悄悄靠近:

He stole into the room.

他悄悄地进了房间。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A detectives were waiting(1.1); They were expecting(1.2);

detectives were waiting(1.5); others were waiting(1.6);two detectives were keeping guard(11.7-8)

B 1 When the plane arrived, some of the detectives were waiting inside the main building while oth ers were waiting on the airfield.

2 When two of the detectives opened the parcel, two others were keeping guard at the door.

C (sample answers)

1 I was getting into my bath when you telephoned me.

2 I was reading Hamlet when you saw me in the library this morning.

3 I was saying that you must see the new film when you interruped me.

D 1 was leaving…arrived 2 worked/ was working…was sitting/ sat3 was walking…met
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4 was reading…heard

5 was preparing…set/ was setting

6 dropped…spoke

2.难点练习答案

1 He gave all his books away.

2 She woke the children up early this morning.

4 They cut the king's head off.

5 Put your hat and coat on.

7 Help me to lift this table up.

8 Take your shoes off and put your slippers on.

11 They have pulled the old building down.12 Make your mind up.

14 She threw all those old newspapers away.

3.多项选择题答案

1 b

2 c 3 c 4 d 5 a 6 c

7 d

8 a 9 c 10 b 11a 12 b

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 8
课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.Nearly everybody enters for'The Nicest Garden Competition'each year, but Joe wins every time. but 几乎每个人都参加每年举办的"最佳花园竞赛",而每次都是乔获胜。 几乎每个人都参加每年举办的"最佳花园竞赛" 而每次都是乔获胜。

(1)nearly 和 almost 意义相似,表示"几乎"、"差不多"、"差点儿"的意思:

I'm nearly/ almost ready.

我快准备好了。

I have nearly forgotten his name.

我差点把他的名字忘了。
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He nearly missed the train.

他差点没赶上火车。

均可译为"每一个" 二者常常可以互相代替使用: (2)each 和 every 均可译为"每一个",二者常常可以互相代替使用:

Every/ Each time I wash the car it rains.

每次我擦洗汽车,天总是下雨。

但是 each 更强调个体。它常用以指一个确定的并通常是有限的数目:

Each child in the school was questioned.

学校里的每个孩子都被询问过了。

every 却不那么强调个体,常用来指一个大的、不确定的数目:Every child enjoys Christmas.

所有的/每个孩子都喜欢过圣诞节。

另外,each 既可以作形容词又可以作代词,但 every 只能作形容词:

They each have a share.

他们每人都有一份。

Each of us has his own work to do.

我们每个人都有自己的工作要干。

比尔·弗里斯的花园比乔的花园大。 2.Bill Frith's garden is larger than Joe's. 比尔·弗里斯的花园比乔的花园大。

名词加-'s 表示所属关系,构成名词的所有格。这类名词往往指有生命的东西,特别是人。所有格的语法作用相当 于形容词,限定后面的名词。这个被限定的名词在上下文中第二次被提到时可以省略,只要不引起误解:

This is Mary's boy friend, not Jane's.

这是玛丽的男朋友,不是简的。

My pen is lost. This one is my brother's.

我的钢笔丢了。这枝是我兄弟的。

John's handwriting is better than Mary's and Catherine's.

约翰的书法比玛丽的和凯瑟琳的都要好。
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paths 他修筑了一条条整洁的小路, 3.He has made neat paths and has built a wooden bridge over a pool. 他修筑了一条条整洁的小路,并 在一个池塘上架了一座小木桥。 在一个池塘上架了一座小木桥。

make 和 build 在这里是同义词,都可以解释为"修建"、"建造"。与汉语的写作习惯一样,用英语写作时同一段文 字中尤其是在同一句话中应尽量避免使用重复的词,以使文章显得生动(特殊的修辞手法例外)。

make 和 build 之间的区别主要是:make 的词义比较笼统、广泛,可以解释为"做"、"作出"、"制造"等,而 build 的意义主要限于建筑业,指"建造"、"建设"、"盖房子"、"修筑(桥梁等)":

They have built a new house.

他们盖了一座新房子。

They have made a road along the river.

他们沿这条河筑了一条路。

Have you made the skirt by yourself?

这裙子是你自己做的吗?

语法 Grammar in use

形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

在英语中形容词和副词一般可以有比较级和最高级。比较级相当于汉语中"比……更……"这种句型,最高级则表 示在某个范围"最……"的概念。最高级在使用时前面通常要加定冠词 the,并有一个短语或从句限定其范围。

(1)比较级和最高级的构成

单音节词和少数双音节词(如以辅音+-y 结尾的词)在词尾加-er, -est,以辅音+-y 结尾的词要先将-y 变成-i, 再在词尾加上-er, -est:

hard----harder----hardest

small----smaller----smallest

young----younger----youngest

lean----cleaner----cleanest

busy----busier----busiest

以-e 结尾的词加-r 和-st:

large----larger----largest nice----nicer----nicest

以一个辅音字母结尾的单音节词要双写最后一个字母,然后再加-er, -ext:

big----bigger----biggest

thin----thinner----thinnest
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有一些双音节词在构成比较级和最高级形式时,既可以在单词结尾处加-er 和-est,也可与 more/ less 和 most/ least 连用。如 narrow, clever, common, pleasant 等。但如无把握时,双音节词用 more 和 most 则较为可靠。两个 音节以上的单词如下:

interesting----more

interesting----most interesting

有些形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的构成并不规则

good/ well----better----best

bad/ ill----worse----worst

many/ much----more----most

little----less----leas

told----older/ older----oldest/ eldest

far----farther/ further----farthest/ furthest

than: (2)在使用比较级时,如果需要把所比较的两项都提到,那么就必须在比较级后用 than: 在使用比较级时,如果需要把所比较的两项都提到,

I know him better than you do.

我比你了解他。

Jane's hair is darker than Mary's.

简的头发比玛丽的黑。

My room is cleaner than the one next door.

我的房间比隔壁房间干净。

如果比较级之所指很清楚,它可独立存在:

(3) 等介词短语: (3)最高级的限定范围一般用 of, among, in 等介词短语:

John is the tallest of the three brothers.

这 3 个兄弟中约翰个子最高。

This is the coldest day in ten years.

这是 10 年来最冷的一天。

限定范围也可以是从句:

Mary is the most intelligent person I've ever met.

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玛丽是我所遇到的最聪明的人。

如果范围很清楚,则可以省略:

April is the best season.

4 月是最好的季节。(暗含范围"一年中")

He is always the best.

他总是最优秀的。(暗含范围"在我们当中")

词汇学习 Word study

1.enter

(1)vt.,vi. 进入:

Joe entered the room quietly.

乔悄悄地走进了房间。

Always knock on the door before you enter.进入前要先敲门。

(2)vt.,vi. 参加,加入:

We've entered into an agreement.

我们已达成一项协议。

He soon entered their conversation.

他很快便加入了他们的谈话。

(3)enter for 是"报名参加"的意思:

She entered (her name/ herself) for the mathematics competition.

她报名参加数学竞赛。

He entered his son for the English examination.他让儿子参加英语考试。

2.every 构成的合成词

every 和 one, body, thing 可以构成复合不定代词 everyone, everybody 和 everything。 它们一般都写成一个词。 everyone 和 everybody 一般可以替换使用,后面的代词既可以用单数,也可以用复数,但它们本身均被视为单数:
45

Everyone/ Everybody knows what he has to do.

每一个人都知道自己必须做什么。

Everyone/ Everybody knows what they have to do.

每个人都知道自己必须做什么。

Everything is going well.

一切都很顺利。

与 every 一样可以构成这类合成词的单词还有 some, any 和 no。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A 1 Mary's handwriting is worse than Jane's.

2 Caroline's handwriting is worse than Mary's and Jane's.

3 Caroline's dress is/ was more expensive than Jane's.

4 Mary's dress is/ was more expensive than Jane's and Caroline's.

B …has the most beautiful garden in our town…'The Nicest Garden Competition'…garden is larger t han Joe's…works harder than Joe and grows more flowers and vegetables…garden is more interesting…fo r the worst garden in the town!

D 1 in 2 of 3 of 4 in

2.难点练习答案

A 1 believes 2 was 3 tries

B Sentences 2, 3 and 5

3.多项选择题答案

1 d

2 b 3 b 4 a 5 c 6 c

7 b

8 b 9 a 10 d 11b 12 b

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 9
46

课文详注 Further notes on the text

……一大群人聚集在市政厅的大 1.…a large crowd of people had gathered under the Town Hall clock. ……一大群人聚集在市政厅的大 钟下面。 钟下面。

had gathered 为过去完成时,表示过去某个时刻之前已经完成的动作。(cf. 第 14 课语法)

分钟, 2.It would strike twelve in twenty minutes' time. 再过 20 分钟,大钟将敲响 12 下。

(1)这句话的时态为过去将来时。

(2)in+表示时间长度的短语可译为"……时间之后",一般与将来时连用:

Please wait a moment here. Jack will be back in a few minutes.

请在此稍候。杰克几分钟之后就回来。

(3)strike 的基本含义是"打"、"击":

She struck the man in the face.

她打了那人的脸。

当用于钟、乐器等东西时,它有"敲"、"弹"的含义:

When I entered the room, the clock struck five.

我进屋时,钟敲响了 5 点。

我们等啊等啊,可情况没有变化。 3.We waited and waited, but nothing happened. 我们等啊等啊,可情况没有变化。

动词 happen 作"发生"、"出现"讲时,主语是物:

Have you heard what happened to Sam this morning?

你听说今天上午萨姆发生了什么事了吗?

An interesting thing happened last night.

昨晚发生了一件有趣的事。

Year. 那座大钟不愿意迎接新年。 4.The big clock refused to welcome the New Year. 那座大钟不愿意迎接新年。

这句话中的两个动词 refuse 和 welcome 在一般情况下主语都是人。我们可以说:

Susan's friends welcomed her with flowers when she returned from abroad.
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苏珊从国外回来时,她的朋友们用鲜花欢迎她。

在书上的这句话中,用大钟作主语是一种拟人手法。

语法 Grammar in use

1.引导时间状语的介词 in, on, at, during, till 与 until

(1)用 in 的时间短语有:

表示一天中的某段时间:

in the morning 在早上

in the afternoon/ evening 在下午/晚上

表示月份、年份:

in March 在 3 月

in September 在 9 月

in 1984 在 1984 年

表示季节:

in (the) spring 在春天

in (the) winter 在冬天

in+ 一段时间有两种含义。它可以表示"在某段时间之内",这时它可以与现在时、过去时或将来时连用,一般与 完成某个动作有关:

I always eat my breakfast in ten minutes.

我总是在 10 分钟之内吃完早饭。

I finished the examination in two hours.

我在两小时之内做完了考题。

另外,它还可以表示"……时间之后",与将来时连用:Mother will be back in ten days.

母亲 10 天后回来。

的时间短语有: (2)用 on 的时间短语有:
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表示星期:

on Monday 星期一

on Friday 星期五

on Monday morning/evening 在星期一早上/晚上表示日期:

on June 1st 在 6 月 1 日

on 23rd March 在 3 月 23 日

(在书写日期时没有冠词,但在口语中则分别读为:on June the first, on the 23rd of March)

表示星期+日期:

on Monday, June 1st 在 6 月 1 日,星期一

表示具体时间:

on that day 在那一天

on that evening 在那天晚上

My brother's birthday is on August 12th.我哥哥的生日是 8 月 12 日。

的时间短语有: (3)用 at 的时间短语有:

表示确切的时间:

at 10 o'clock 在 10 点钟

at 5 'clock 在 5 点钟

表示用餐时间:

at lunch/ dinner time 在午饭/正餐时间

at teatime 在茶点时间

表示其他时刻:

at noon/ night/ midnight 在中午/夜里/半夜

at this time 在这时

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Liz came to see me at ten/ teatime.

莉兹 10 点/在茶点时来看我了。

后必须跟一个名词,可以指整个一段时间。 替代: (4)during 后必须跟一个名词,可以指整个一段时间。它有时可以用 in 替代:

It was very hot during the summer.

那年夏天很热。

He has phoned four times during the last half hour.

在这半小时内他打了 4 次电话。

但在下面的例句中则不可用 in 替代 during:

I met him sometime during the week.

我是在这一周的某天遇见他的。

During the whole winter it never snowed.

整个冬季一直没下雪。

(5)from…till…指一段明确的时间: from…till…指一段明确的时间: 指一段明确的时间

The tourist season runs from June till October.

旅游季节从 6 月一直到 10 月。

leave) (6)当所用动词只表示一个短暂的动作(如 finish, leave)时,则只能在否定句中用 till/ until: 当所用动词只表示一个短暂的动作(

I won't leave till/ until Monday.

我要到星期一才离开。

2.否定句的两种形式:not any 与 no

对于一般疑问句,可以有两种否定的回答:

否定词 no 比 not any 的语气要强,但这两种否定的意义是相同的。no 可构成复合词 nobody, none, nothing, no where; any 可构成复合词 anybody, anything 和 anywhere:

在一个句子中通常只能有一个否定词(包括 never, hardly 等词):

而除黑人英语外一般不说:* I can't get no eggs.*
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词汇学习 Word study

1.gather

(1)vt. 使集拢,集合,召集:

He gathered a large crowd of people round him.

他在自己周围聚集了一大群人。

(2)vt. 收集,采集,收(庄稼等):

The children are out in the field gathering flowers.

孩子们在外面地里采花。

It has taken me a lifetime to gather all these books.

收集所有这些书花了我一辈子的时间。

(3)vi. 集拢,聚集,集合:

They gathered under the Town Hall clock.

他们聚集在市政厅的大钟下面。

2. refuse

(1)vt. 拒绝(接受、服从等):

She refused the gift.

她拒绝接受这份礼物。

(2)vt. 拒不,不肯,不愿:

Mary refused to tell her age.

玛丽不愿说出自己的年龄。

John refused to change his mind.

约翰拒不改变主意。

(3)vi. 拒绝,不接受:

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I offered to pay him for his help, but he refused.

对于他的帮助我提出给他报酬,但他拒绝了。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A 1 We went to the Town Hall on Wednesday evening/ New Year's Eve.

2 The clock would strike twelve in twenty minutes time.

3 The clock stopped at five to twelve.

B 1 in 2 On 3 during/ in 4 in 5 at

6 on…in 7 in 8 at…in 9 until

C (sample answers)

1 The match will begin at 3 o'clock.

2 They bought their house in 1980.

3 The shop is closed from one till two.

4 The children went to school in the morning.

5 He'll finish school in two years' time.

6 Let's go for a walk in the evening.

7 He went to church on Sunday.

2.难点练习答案

A 1 No, I haven't any/ have no money.

2 No, I didn't go anywhere/ went nowhere in the holidays.

3 No, I didn't buy anything/ bought nothing this morning.

4 No, there wasn't anybody/ was nobody present when the accident happened.

B He has no hobbies. He goes nowhere. He sees nobody. He is interested in nothing----except food!

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3.多项选择题答案

1 b

2 b 3 d 4 a 5 a 6 b

7 b

8 d 9 b 10 b 11 d 12 c

新概念英语第二册自学笔记 Lesson 10-11
课文详注 Further notes on the text

another,(标题)礼尚往来。 1.One good turn deserves another,(标题)礼尚往来。

(1)名词 turn 的含义之一是"(帮助或损害他人的)举动"、"行为":

Yesterday George did me a good/ an ill turn.

乔治昨天做了一件对我有利/不利的事。

He is always ready to do a turn for others.

他总是乐于为他人做好事。

(2)deserve 的意义为"应受"、"应得(奖赏、惩罚等)"、"值得",通常为及物动词:

His words deserve attention.

他的话值得注意。

Mary deserves the prize.

玛丽应得这个奖。

salary…他的薪水很高 他的薪水很高…… 2.He gets a good salary…他的薪水很高……

good 在这里的意思是"相当大/多的"、"相当可观的":

It takes me a good three hours to get there.

我花了整整 3 小时才到达那里。

3.…but he always borrows money from his friends and never pays it back. ……但他却总是向朋友借 ……但他却总是向朋友借 钱,并且从来不还。 并且从来不还。

(1)连词 and 在这句话中可解释为"并且"、"另外"(in addition)。

(2)pay 在这里的意思是"偿还(债务等)"。
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pay 还可以解释为"付"、"支付(价款、账单等)",如课文的最后一句话:

…so now you can pay for my dinner!

……所以现在你可以替我付饭钱了!

pay 既是及物动词也可以是不及物动词:

How much did you pay for that dress?

那件衣服你花了多少钱?

I paid the bill.

我付了账。

语法 Grammar in use

1.在前 10 课的语法中,我们比较了一般过去时、一般现在时、现在完成时、现在进行时和过去进行时等时态以 及和它们相关的时间状语,另外还学习了被动语态。现在我们通过例句简要回顾一下所学过的内容:

2.动词+名词/代词+ 带 to 的不定式 动词+名词/代词+

某些动词之后的带 to 的不定式之前可以有一个名词或代词。有些动词后的名词/代词可有可无,但有和没有经常 影响整个句子的意义:

I want to speak to John.

我想和约翰谈话。(=I will speak.)

I want you to speak to John.

我希望你和约翰谈谈。(=You will speak.)

但是,还有一些动词后面用不定式作宾语时,其后通常必须有一名词或代词。这类动词有:allow, advise, help, teach, tell, request 等等。这类动词不但可用于主动语态,也可用于被动语态:

Mr. Turner did not allow us to see the picture.

特纳先生没让我们看那幅画。

We were not allowed to see the picture.

人们不许我们看那幅画。

He taught me to paint.
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他教我绘画。

Jane helped Julie to cook the meal.

简帮着朱莉做饭。

词汇学习 Word study

1.salary 与 wage

salary 可译为"薪金"、"薪水",通常指职员、脑力劳动者(如律师、教师、医生等)的收入,数额比较固定,一 般按月支付:

My salary is paid on the 28th of the month.

我每月 28 号领工资。

wage 可译为"工资"、"工钱",通常指技工或一般体力劳动者的收入,按周或天支付。wage 一般用复数形式 wages:

When I worked as a waiter, the wages were low, but the tips were good.

我当侍者时工资不高,但小费可观。

Women often get low wages.

妇女的报酬通常很低。

2.borrow 与 lend

borrow 的意思是"借"、"借入",经常与 from 连用:

He borrowed my pen yesterday. He hasn't given me it yet.

他昨天借了我的钢笔,到现在他还没有还我。

Can I borrow £ 20 from you please? I'll pay/ give it back tomorrow.

我能从您这里借 20 英镑吗?我明天就还给您。

lend 的意思是"把……借给"、"借出",经常与介词 to 连用:

He refused to lend any money to Tom.

他不肯借给汤姆钱。

Can you lend me £ 20 please? I'll pay/ give it back tomorrow.
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您能借给我 20 英镑吗?我明天就还给您。

Can you lend your car to me this afternoon?

你今天下午能把车借我用一下吗?

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A a he is now working (1.2)

b he gets (1.3); he always borrows (1.3); never pays it back (1.4)

c came in…worked (11.2-2); Tony saw (1.4); came and sat (1.4); I asked him (1.6); he gave me (1. 7); Tony said (1.8)

d He has never borrowed (1.5); I have never borrowed (1.7)

e I was having (1.1); he was eating (1.6)

C 1 gets…got

2 have not had

3 was writing…talked/ were talking

4 am typing

5 passed/ were passing

D The Taj Mahal was built…after he became/ had become ruler, his wife…died. The Taj Mahal was bu ilt in her honour. Experts were called in…The Taj Mahal, which was begun in 1632 and (was) completed in 1654, cost a fortune…it has been visited by…

2.难点练习答案

a

A 1 The officer ordered the men to fire at the enemy.

2 He wants his wife to wear this dress.

3 She wants us to explain it.

4 I cannot allow him to enter the room.
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B (sample sentences)

1 He asked me to help him.

2 We preferred her to stay at home.

3 He taught me to speak English.

4 My mother wished me to collect the laundry.

5 Do you want her to visit you?

b

1 salary 2 lent…salary/ wages 3 borrowed

4 wages 5 wages

3.多项选择题答案

1 b

2 b 3 b 4 a 5 b 6 c

7 c

8 a 9 c 10 c 11b 12 d

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